Emperor Montoku

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Montoku
Emperor of Japan
Emperor Montoku.jpg
Montoku
Reign 850–858
Born 22 January 827
Birthplace Kyoto (Heian kyō)
Died 27 August 858
Place of death Kyoto
Buried Tamura no misasagi (Kyoto)
Predecessor Ninmyō
Successor Seiwa

Emperor Montoku (文徳天皇 Montoku-tennō?, 22 January 827–27 August 858) was the 55th emperor of Japan,[1] according to the traditional order of succession.[2]

His reign started in 850 and ended in 858.[3]

Traditional narrative[change | edit source]

Before he became the monarch, this prince's personal name (imina)[4] was Michiyasu (道康?).[5] He was also known as Tamura-no-mikado[6] or Tamura-tei.[7]

He was the eldest son of Emperor Ninmyō.[6]

Montoku had six Imperial consorts and 29 Imperial sons.[8]

Events of Montoku's life[change | edit source]

Before he became the monarch, he was Crown Prince for 8 years.

  • 6 May 850 (Kashō 3, 21st day of the 3rd month): In the 17th year of Ninmyō-tennō 's reign (仁明天皇17年), the emperor died. His eldest son received the succession (senso).[9]
  • 850 (Kashō 3, 5th month): The widow of Emperor Saga, who was the mother of Emperor Ninmyō and the grandmother of Emperor Montoku, died.[12]
  • 850 (Kashō 3, 11th month): The emperor named Korehito-shinnō, the 4th son of Emperor Montoku as his heir.[13] This 9-month-old baby was also the grandson of Fujiwara no Yoshifusa who was Minister of the Right (udaijin).[14]
  • 855 (Saikō 2, 1st month): The Emishi organized a rebellion. In response, a force of 1,000 men and provisions were sent to the north.[15]
  • 855 (Saikō 2, 5th month): The head of the great statute of Buddha in the Tōdai-ji fell off.[15]
  • 7 October 858 (Ten'an 2, 27th day of the 8th month): Montoku died at the age of 32.[16]

After his death[change | edit source]

According to the Imperial Household Agency, the mausoleum (misasagi) of Montoku is in Kyoto. The emperor is traditionally venerated at a memorial Shinto shrine at this location.[1] The site is formally named Tamura no misasagi.[17]

Eras of reign[change | edit source]

The years of Montoku's reign are identified by more than one era name or nengō.[12]

Related pages[change | edit source]

References[change | edit source]

The chrysanthemum symbol of the Japanese emperor and his family
  1. 1.0 1.1 Imperial Household Agency (Kunaichō), 文徳天皇 (55); retrieved 2011-10-26.
  2. Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan, pp. 64-65.
  3. Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, p. 112; Brown, Delmer M. (1979). Gukanshō, pp. 264-265; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki, p. 165.
  4. Brown, pp. 264; before to Emperor Jomei, the personal names of the emperors were very long and people did not generally use them; however, the number of characters in each name were shorter after Jomei's reign.
  5. Titsingh, p. 112; Brown p. 285.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Varley, p. 165.
  7. Ponsonby-Fane, p. 8.
  8. Brown, p. 285.
  9. Titsingh, p. 112; Brown, p. 284.
  10. Titsingh, p. 112.
  11. Varley, p. 44; a distinct act of senso is unrecognized prior to Emperor Tenji; and all sovereigns except Jitō, Yōzei, Go-Toba, and Fushimi have senso and sokui in the same year until the reign of Emperor Go-Murakami. Compare Imperial Household Agency (Kunaichō), Ceremony of Accession (Sokui-no-Rei); retrieved 2011-12-23.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Titsingh, p. 112.
  13. Brown, p. 286.
  14. Titsingh, p. 113.
  15. 15.0 15.1 Titsingh, p. 114.
  16. Brown, p. 285-286; Varley, p. 165.
  17. Ponsonby-Fane, p. 420.

Other websites[change | edit source]

Media related to Emperor Montoku at Wikimedia Commons


Preceded by
Emperor Ninmyō
Emperor of Japan:
Montoku

850–858
Succeeded by
Emperor Seiwa