- 1 Anthropology [anth-row-pahl-O-gee] is the study of human beings in the past and present.
- 2 Four Kinds of Anthropology
- 3 Rules of Anthropology
- 4 Important People
- 5 Important Books
- 6 Important Groups
- 7 References
Anthropology [anth-row-pahl-O-gee] is the study of human beings in the past and present.[change | change source]
The word anthropology has two roots: [ anthrop- ] and [ -ology ]. Anthrop- means “about human beings,” and -ology means “a type of science." Anthropology is a type of science about human beings. A person who studies anthropology is called an anthropologist.
The main goal of anthropology is to answer the questions: What makes us human and why?
Anthropology is a biological and historical social science that helps us learn how groups of people are the same, and how they are different in all parts of the world. Anthropologists do research in many places and study how people live now and how they may have lived in the past. They research in modern cities, small villages, tribes, and in the countryside.
The four big kinds of anthropology are:
- Archaeology - The study of how people lived in the past.
- Biological Anthropology - The study of how people adapt to where they live and how bodies changed over time (evolution).
- Linguistic Anthropology - The study of how people speak and the words they use.
- Socio - Cultural Anthropology - The study of how people live their lives now and how they may have lived in the past. It combines social and cultural ideas about people.
Four Kinds of Anthropology[change | change source]
1. Archaeology[change | change source]
Archaeology is the study of humans from the past. People who study archaeology are called archaeologists.
Archaeologists look at the stuff that past people left behind to know how they lived. They look at tools, bones, and past houses to see how people in the past are not the same as people that live today.
2. Biological Anthropology[change | change source]
Biological or physical anthropology studies human bodies and how they change over time.
They look at how humans live in nature and how their bodies change because of where they live. They also study how human beings and apes and monkeys are alike. Sometimes biological anthropologists study human and animal bones to learn about how past humans lived. They are also called physical anthropologists.
3. Linguistic Anthropology[change | change source]
Linguistic anthropology is the study of how people talk.
Linguistic anthropologists study sounds and how they go together to make words. Then they study what the words mean and how people use them. Linguistic anthropology also studies how language changes what people think and how people change language. No two people talk the same way, so linguistic anthropologists want to know why that happens.
4. Socio-Cultural Anthropology[change | change source]
Socio-Cultural Anthropology is the study of human societies and cultures.
It looks at how human beings understand the world around them and how they act with the people around them. Socio-cultural anthropologists study living people by going to their homes and learning about who those people are and what they do. They write about people in places all over the world to see why people are different. Some socio-cultural anthropologists study medicine in these places and some look at how babies grow up in other places.
Rules of Anthropology[change | change source]
Like everything in life, anthropology has a set of rules that every anthropologist needs to follow. The rules try to make sure that no one gets hurt or mad when studying other people. Here are some of the rules:
- To make sure no one gets hurt when studying anthropology
- To respect and be nice to humans and animals
- To make sure any items used to study people are well taken care of
- To work as a team
Important People[change | change source]
This is a list of important people who studied anthropology.
- Franz Boas (1858-1942)
- Boas is known as the "Father" of American anthropology because he helped spread anthropology throughout the United States.
- He studied socio-cultural anthropology, biological anthropology, and archaeology.
- Claude Levi Strauss (1908-2009)
- Levi Strauss studied how humans think and act the same everywhere around the world.
- Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)
- Durkheim studied how people in societies make new ideas and groups.
- Bronislaw Malinowski (1884-1942)
- Malinowski studied how people in different places act and how they are different from people in other places.
- Margaret Mead (1901-1978)
- Mead studied how there are different ways people raise babies and how those babies grow up.
- Marcel Mauss (1872-1950)
- A.R. Radcliffe-Brown (1881-1955)
- Radcliffe-Brown studied how people put their lives in order in different places all over the world.
Important Books[change | change source]
This is a list of books that are important for studying anthropology.
- Charles Darwin, On the Origin of Species, 1861
- Charles Darwin, The Descent of Man, 1871
- Thomas Henry Huxley, Man's Place in Nature, 1863
- Rudolf Virchow, Anthropological Papers, 1891
- Desmond Morris, The Naked Ape, 1967
- Jane Goodall, In the Shadow of Man, 1971
- Richard Dawkins, The Selfish Gene, 1976
- E.O. Wilson, On Human Nature, 1979
- E.O. Wilson, Consilience: the unity of knowledge, 1998
- E.O. Wilson, The social Conquest of Earth, 2012
- Jared Diamond, The Third Chimpanzee, 1991
- Jared Diamond, Collapse: how societies choose to fail or succeed, 2005
- Richard Wrangham, Catching Fire: how cooking made us human, 2009
- Ulf Hannerz, Anthropology's World: life in a twenty-first century discipline, 2010
- James D. Faubion, An Anthropology of Ethics, 2011
Important Groups[change | change source]
This is a list of important groups for anthropologists in the United States and in other places in the world.
- American Anthropological Association (AAA)
- The world’s biggest group of anthropologists. It started in 1902 and lets people who study all the areas of anthropology join.
- Council on Anthropology and Education (CAE)
- A group that is about teaching anthropology.
- Great Basin Anthropological Association (GBAA)
- A group that studies people that live on the West side of the United States.
- National Association for the Practice of Anthropology (NAPA)
- A group that helps people practice anthropology. It started in 1983.
- Society for Applied Anthropology (SfAA)
- A group that helps people practice anthropology in the United States.
- Society of Forensic Anthropology (SFA)
- A group that studies humans and the law in the United States.
- Society for Linguistic Anthropology (SLA)
- A group that studies how people talk in different places.
- Society for Medical Anthropology (SMA)
- A group that studies medicine and how people use medicine in different places.
- American Association for Physical Anthropologists (AAPA)
- A group that studies human bodies and nature.
- National Association of Student Anthropologists (NASA)
- A group that helps students study anthropology. It started in 1985.
- Society for American Archaeology (SAA)
- A group of anthropologists that study how humans act and world problems. It started in 1941.
- Society for Historical Archaeology (SHA)
- A group that studies archaeology in the modern world. It started in 1967.
- World Council of Anthropological Associations (WCAA)
- A group that talks to all of the other anthropological groups around the world.
- The Australian Anthropological Society (AAS)
- A group for anthropologists in the country of Australia. It started in 1973.
- European Association of Social Anthropologists (EASA)
- A group for socio-cultural anthropologists who live in Europe.
- Royal Anthropological Institute (RAI)
- A group for anthropologists in Great Britain. It is the world’s oldest anthropological group.
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References[change | change source]
- "What is Anthropology? - Advance Your Career". www.americananthro.org. Retrieved 2019-11-15.
- "-ology | Origin and meaning of suffix -ology by Online Etymology Dictionary". www.etymonline.com. Retrieved 2019-11-15.
- "anthrop | Search Online Etymology Dictionary". www.etymonline.com. Retrieved 2019-11-15.
- Doda, Zerihun (2005). Introduction to Sociocultural Anthropology (PDF). Ethiopia Public Health Training Initiative: USAID.
- "anthropology | Definition, Branches, History, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2019-11-15.
- Binford, Lewis R. (1962). "Archaeology as Anthropology". American Antiquity 28 (2): 217–225. doi:10.2307/278380. ISSN 0002-7316. http://www.jstor.org/stable/278380.
- Larsen, C. S. (Ed.). (2010). A companion to biological anthropology (Vol. 20). John Wiley & Sons.
- Duranti, A. (Ed.). (2009). Linguistic anthropology: A reader (Vol. 1). John Wiley & Sons.
- Ingold, Tim. 2005. Companion Encyclopedia of Anthropology. New York: Routledge.
- Garbarino, M. S. (1983). Sociocultural theory in anthropology: A short history. Waveland Press.
- American Anthropological Association. 1998. Code of Ethics. 
- Erickson, Paul; Murphy, Liam (2013). A History of Anthropological Theory. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.