|Formation||September 19, 1996(Ottawa Declaration)|
|Purpose||Forum for promoting cooperation, coordination, and interaction among the Arctic states, with the involvement of the Arctic Indigenous communities|
|Headquarters||Tromsø, Norway (since 2012)|
The Arctic Council is a high-level forum between governments. It addresses issues faced by the Arctic governments and the indigenous people of the Arctic. The Council is formed of eight countries: Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden, and the United States. All of these countries have sovereignty over the lands within the Arctic Circle. There are also some observer states.
The Council was formed in 1996 by the Ottawa Declaration. It is designed to encourage cooperation, coordination, and interaction among the Arctic states. The Council meets every six months for a Senior Arctic Officials (SAO) meeting. Senior Arctic Officials are representatives of the member states. Every two years a Ministerial Meeting is held. A "Declaration" is produced at this meeting. It sums up the past work of the Council and its future plans.
Membership[change | change source]
The Council is made up of member and observer states, as well as Indigenous "permanent participants" and observer organizations.
States[change | change source]
Member states[change | change source]
To be a member, a state must have territory in the Arctic. The member states are:
- Denmark; representing Greenland
- United States
Observer states[change | change source]
Observer status is open to non-Arctic states. They must be approved by the Council at the Ministerial Meetings. Observers have no voting rights in the Council. Currently, thirteen non-Arctic states have observer status.
Current observer states are (2019):
- Germany, 1998
- Netherlands, 1998
- Poland, 1998
- United Kingdom, 1998
- France, 2000
- Spain, 2006
- China, 2013
- India, 2013
- Italy, 2013
- Japan, 2013
- South Korea, 2013
- Singapore, 2013
- Switzerland, 2017
References[change | change source]
- "About the Arctic Council". Arctic Council. Retrieved 2021-04-14.
- "Ottawa Declaration (1996)". Arctic Council. 1996.
- "About the Arctic Council". The Arctic Council. April 7, 2011. Archived from the original on September 27, 2013. Retrieved Sep 6, 2013.
- Category: Observers (2011-04-27). "Six non-arctic countries have been admitted as observers to the Arctic Council". Arctic-council.org. Retrieved 2013-09-24.
Other websites[change | change source]
- www.arctic-council.org – Arctic Council
- Arctic nations meet as tensions and temperatures run high (2021) Bangkok Post