Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or attention deficit disorder (ADD), is a condition affecting the brain. It affects how people think and act. People with ADHD usually have problems with focusing and remembering what is said or done around them. They may also have extra trouble sitting still or being quiet.
Experts think that throughout the entire world, about one in twenty children (5%) has ADHD. Some countries have more ADHD than others, and not everyone uses the same tests. Psychologists have found more people with ADHD in North America than in Africa and the Middle East. In the United States, about one in every fourteen children has ADHD (7%), including one in every ten boys (10%) and one in every twenty-five girls (4%). This could be because more boys get ADHD, or because fewer girls take ADHD tests.
ADHD is most common in children, but many adults have ADHD, too. A little less than half of children with ADHD get better when they become adults.
Most people who have ADHD also have other mental disorders, most often oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, dyslexia, Tourette syndrome, anxiety disorders (especially obsessive-compulsive disorder), mood disorders, substance use disorders, eating disorders and personality disorders (especially antisocial, borderline, histrionic, passive-aggressive and avoidant).
Cause[change | change source]
Twin studies show the disorder is often inherited from parents. Genetics determines about 75% of cases. Siblings of children with ADHD are three to four times more likely to develop the disorder than siblings of children without the disorder. Genetic factors are also believed to be involved in determining whether ADHD persists into adulthood.
Signs and symptoms[change | change source]
- They can get distracted easily when listening
- They can have difficulty when focusing
- They can get bored after a few minutes unless it's something they enjoy
- They can have difficulty when organizing or completing a task, homework, assignments, and by handing in tasks
- They can often lose items or forget about them
- They do not seem to listen when they are spoken to
- They can daydream, become confused easily, and not move fast
- They have difficulty taking information quickly or correctly
- They seem to struggle when following instructions
Further reading[change | change source]
- Genetics links between five major psychiatric disorders: autism, ADHD, bipolar disorder, depression, and schizophrenia per recent study.
- 5 Disorders Share Genetic Risk Factors, Study Finds February 28, 2013 The New York Times
- Psychiatric Disorders Linked Genetically February 27, 2013 WSJ
References[change | change source]
- LONI: Laboratory of Neuro Imaging
- NINDS Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder Information Page. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS/NIH) 2007. Retrieved on 2007-08-13.
- Polanczyk G. et al (2007). "The worldwide prevalence of ADHD: a systematic review and metaregression analysis". Am J Psychiatry 164 (6): 942–48. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.164.6.942. PMID 17541055.
- PDF (3.71 MB). Centers for Disease Control, 2004. Retrieved on December 11, 2006.
- Staller J & Faraone SV. 2006. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in girls: epidemiology and management. CNS Drugs. 2006;20(2):107–23. PMID 16478287
- Biederman J & Faraone S.V. 2004. The Massachusetts General Hospital studies of gender influences on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in youth and relatives. Psychiatr Clin North Am. Jun;27(2):225–32. PMID 15063995
- Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder: ADHD in Adults. WebMd.com. Retrieved on December 11, 2006.
- National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health 2009. attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: diagnosis and management of ADHD in children, young people and adults. British Psychological Society. pp. 19–27, 38, 130, 133, 317. ISBN 9781854334718
- Neale B.M. et al (2010). "Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder". J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 49 (9): 884–897. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2010.06.008. PMC 2928252. PMID 20732625.
- Burt S.A. (2009). "Rethinking environmental contributions to child and adolescent psychopathology: a meta-analysis of shared environmental influences". Psychol Bull 135 (4): 608–637. doi:10.1037/a0015702. PMID 19586164.
- Nolen-Hoeksema S. (2013). Abnormal Psychology (6th ed.). p. 267. ISBN 9780078035388.
- Franke B. et al (2012). "The genetics of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults, a review". Mol. Psychiatry 17 (10): 960–987. doi:10.1038/mp.2011.138. PMC 3449233. PMID 22105624.