|Carob pods on the tree|
It is widely grown for its edible pods, and as an ornamental tree in gardens. The ripe, dried pod is often ground to carob powder, which is used to replace cocoa powder. Carob bars, an alternative to chocolate bars, are often available in health-food stores.
Names[change | change source]
The tree is known in English as carob tree, St John's-bread or locust bean (not to be confused with the African locust bean).
Common names in some other languages are:
- French: caroube, caroubier
- German: Johannisbrotbraum
- Portuguese: alfarrobeira
- Spanish: algarrobo, caroba
Ceratonia siliqua, the scientific name of the carob tree given by Carolus Linnaeus to this plant, comes from the Greek kerátiοn κεράτιον 'fruit of the carob (from keras κέρας 'horn'), and Latin siliqua "pod, carob".
Description[change | change source]
The carob tree grows up to 15 m (49 ft) tall. The crown (the upper part of tree) is broad and semispherical, supported by a thick trunk with brown rough bark and solid and firm branches. Leaves are 10 to 20 cm (3.9 to 7.9 in) long, alternate and compound.
Most carob trees are dioecious (with separate male an female plants) but some are hermaphrodite. The male trees do not produce fruit. The trees blossom in autumn. The flowers are small and in an inflorescence axis in racemes like catkins; the pollination is by both wind and insects.
The fruit is a legume (also known as a pod). The pods take a full year to develop and ripen. The sweet ripe pods eventually fall to the ground and are eaten by various mammals (goats, sheep, cows), and so the hard seeds are dispersed.
Where it grows[change | change source]
It has been introduced into regions with a similar Mediterranean climate.
Uses[change | change source]
Food[change | change source]
Carob is mildly sweet and is used in powdered, chip, or syrup form as an ingredient in cakes and cookies, and as a substitute for chocolate. Carob bars are widely available in health food stores. A traditional sweet, eaten during Lent and Good Friday, is also made from carob pods in Malta.
Carob pod meal is used as an energy-rich feed for livestock, particularly for ruminants, though its high tannin content may limit its use.
Syrup, drinks[change | change source]
In Cyprus, carob syrup is known as Cyprus's black gold, and is widely exported. In Malta, a syrup (ġulepp tal-ħarrub) is made out of carob pods. Carob syrup is also used in Crete as a natural sweetener, and is considered a natural source of calcium. It contains three times more calcium than milk. It is also rich in iron, phosphorus, and natural fibers (Due to its strong taste, it can be found mixed with orange or chocolate).
Carob juice drinks are traditionally drunk during the Islamic month of Ramadan. Crushed pods may be used to make a beverage; compote, liqueur, and syrup are made from carob in Turkey, Malta, Portugal, Spain, and Sicily. Several studies suggest that carob may aid in treating diarrhea in infants.
Ornamental[change | change source]
C. siliqua is widely planted in the horticultural as an ornamental plant for planting in Mediterranean climate and other temperate regions around the world, as in California and Hawaii. The plant can be used as a dense and large hedge.
Production[change | change source]
- Spain 40,000 (F)
- Italy 30,841
- Portugal 23,000 (F)
- Greece 22,000 (F)
- Morocco 20,500 (F)
- Turkey 14,218
- Cyprus 5,186
- Algeria 3,136
- Lebanon 2,300 (F)
(F) = FAO estimate
Gallery[change | change source]
References[change | change source]
- "Carob". Online Etimology Dictionary. Retrieved 8 August 2016. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Taxon: Ceratonia siliqua L." U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS/GRIN). Retrieved 8 August 2016. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "sicula - sinuatus". Dictionary of Botanical Epithets. Retrieved 8 August 2016. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Ceratonia siliqua" (PDF). worldagroforestry.org. p. 2. Retrieved 8 August 2016. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Heuzé, V.; Sauvant, D.; Tran, G.; Lebas, F.; Lessire, M. (October 3, 2013). "Carob (Ceratonia siliqua)". Feedipedia.org. A programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. Retrieved 8 August 2016. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Maria T. (19 June 2015). "Bioaroma carob Syrup - ideal for sugar replacement-osteoporosis-weight loss". CretanSoil - best natural products. Archived from the original on 28 August 2014. Retrieved 9 August 2016.
- Fortier D, Lebel G, Frechette A (June 1953). "Carob flour in the treatment of diarrhoeal conditions in infants". Canadian Medical Association Journal. 68 (6): 557–61. PMC 1822828. PMID 13059705.
- "Major Food And Agricultural Commodities And Producers – Countries By Commodity". Fao.org. Retrieved 8 August 2016. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
Other websites[change | change source]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ceratonia siliqua.|
|Wikispecies has information on: Carob.|
- Ceratonia in Encyclopedia of Life
- Ceratonia L. in Global Biodiversity Information Facility
- PDF (1.32 MB)
- Carob recipes, Cooks.com.
- Purdue Univ: Fruits of Warm Climates: Carob treatment - horticulture and cultivars, species and native habitat treatment.