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The Ildegizids,[1] Eldiguzids[2][3] (Persian: ایلدگزیان, Azerbaijani: Eldəgəzlər) or Ildenizids, also known as Atabegs of Azerbaijan[4][5] (Persian: اتابکان آذربایجان Atabakan-e Āzarbayjan, Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan Atabəylər Dövləti) A historical state that ruled Azerbaijan, eastern Anatolia, northern Iraq, Iran and Jibali in 1136-1225. 

History[change | change source]

The start of the dynasty is connected with Shamsaddin Eldaniz of Kipchak origin. Thus, Eldaniz, who took Arran as an iqta by Sultan Masud, soon spread his power throughout Azerbaijan.  After his son Arslanshah also ruled in 1160, Eldaniz seized power in the Seljuk sultanate of Iraq. During the reign of Shamsaddin Eldaniz, the lands covered Arran, Azerbaijan, Shirvan, Cibal, Hamadan, Gilan, Mazandaran, Isfahan, Rey, Mosul, Kirman, Persia, Khuzistan, Akhlat, Erzurum and Maragha.ere a Turkic dynasty of Kipchak[3] origin. They controlled most of northwestern Persia,[2] eastern Transcaucasia, including[2] Arran,[2][3][5] most of Azerbaijan,[2][3][5] and Djibal.[2][3][5] At their biggest, the land they had was about most of north-western and upper-central modern Iran, most of the regions of modern Azerbaijan and smaller portions in modern Armenia, Turkey and Iraq.[6]

The strengthening of the dynasty is connected with the period of Mohammad Jahan Pahlava.  After the death of Sultan Arslanshah in 1175, Jahan Pahlavan, who brought his 7-year-old son Togrul III to power, declared himself his ancestor and, like Shamsaddin Eldaniz, took de facto power.[7] Atabey Jahan Pahlavan suppressed revolts against the central government and established friendly relations with the ruling dynasties in the neighborhood.  Since the period of Jahan Pahlava was a period of stability, cultural spheres developed in the lands under the rule of the Eldenizs.  During the reign of the mentioned Atabey, the capital of the Eldenizs was moved from Nakhchivan to Hamadan.

Atabeg[change | change source]

Atabeg means "father lord" in Turkic languages. It was the title given to the Turkic officers of Seljuq dynasty.[8] Atabegs were not only vice-regents, but also de-facto rulers.[8]

List of Eldiguzids (Atabegs of Azerbaijan)[change | change source]

  1. Shams al-Din Ildeniz or Eldigüz (ca.1135 or 1136-1174 or 1175)
  2. Mohammed Jahan Pahlavan (1174 or 1175–1186)
  3. Qizil Arslan (1186–1191)
  4. Abu Bakr (1191–1210)
  5. Uzbek (1210–1225)

References[change | change source]

  1. Lewis, Bernard (1994). Sir Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb (ed.). Encyclopedia of Islam. Vol. 10. Brill. p. 554.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 C.E. Bosworth, "Ildenizids or Eldiguzids", Encyclopaedia of Islam, Edited by P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs et al., Encyclopædia of Islam, 2nd Edition., 12 vols. with indexes and etc., Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1960–2005. Vol 3. pp 1110-111. Excerpt 1: "Ildenizids or Eldiguzids, a line of Atabegs of Turkish slave commanders who governed most of northwestern Persia, including Arran, most of Azarbaijan, and Djibal, during the second half of the 6th/12th century and the early decades of the 7th/13th century". Excerpt 2: "The Turkish Ildenizids shared to the full in the Perso-Islamic civilization"
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (1996). The New Islamic Dynasties: A Chronological and Genealogical Manual. Columbia University Press. pp. 199–200. ISBN 0231107145. pp 199-200(Eldiguizds or Ildegizds): "The Elgiguzids or Ildegizds were a Turkish Atabeg dynasty who controlled most of Azerbaijan (apart from the region of Maragha held by another Atabeg line, the Ahamadilis), Arran and northern Jibal during the second half the twelfth century when the Great Seljuq Sultane of Western Persia and Iraq was in full decay and unable to prevent the growth of virtually independent powers in the province", pp 199-200: "Eldiguz (Arabic-Persian sources write 'y.l.d.k.z) was originally a Qipchaq military slave", pp199-200: "The historical significance of these Atabegs thus lies in their firm control over most of north-western Persia during the later Seljuq periodand also their role in Transcaucasia as champions of Islamagainst the resurgent Bagtarid Kings". pp 199: "In their last phase, the Eldiguzids were once more local rulers in Azerbaijan and eastern Transcaucasia, hard pressed by the aggressive Georgians, and they did not survive the troubled decades of the thirteenth century".
  4. Hodgson, Marshall G.S. (1977). The expansion of Islam in the middle periods Volume 1. University of Chicago Press. p. 262. ISBN 0226346846.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Luther, K.A. (December 15, 1987). "Atabakan-e Ādarbayjan". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved October 28, 2010.
  6. İradə Nuriyeva.s.18.
  7. Antoine Constant. L'Azerbaïdjan, Karthala Editions, 2002, ISBN 2-84586-144-3, p. 96
  8. 8.0 8.1 Hodgson, Marshall G.S. The Venture of Islam: Conscience and History in a World Civilization, University of Chicago Press, 1974, ISBN 0-226-47693-6, p. 260