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Hezbollah (Arabic: حزب الله, meaning Party of God) is an Islamic political party and paramilitary organization in Lebanon. It was formed in Lebanon in 1982, during the Lebanese Civil War. The leader of Hezbollah is currently Hassan Nasrallah.
Hezbollah's main goals during the Civil War were to fight against Western influences and create an Islamic state in Lebanon. Its members are Shia Muslims, which are the largest Islamic denomination in Lebanon. It is also supports Arab nationalism. It wants freedom for the Palestinian people in Palestine. Because of this, it believes that the State of Israel should not exist, and fights against it. Over the years, the Hezbollah militia has fought a guerrilla war against the Israeli Army along the border in southern Lebanon. It often attacks Israel's military positions by firing rockets across Israel's northern border.
Opposition[change | change source]
To destroy Hezbollah bases, Israel has responded in different ways; for example, air strikes on sites in Lebanon and sending ground troops into Southern Lebanon. In 2000, Israel withdrew its troops from the "security zone" in Southern Lebanon, but not from a sliver of land called Shebba Farms. This fertile area was kept under Israeli occupation. The border stayed relatively quiet until July 2006, except for targeted assassinations and kidnappings by Israel. In July, Hezbollah captured two Israeli soldiers. This led to the 2006 Lebanon War, in which Hezbollah rockets reached deep into Israel.
A few governments consider Hezbollah a terrorist group. The majority do not. Among those who consider it to be a terrorist group are the United States, and Israel. The European Union and the United Kingdom consider Hezbollah's military branch to be a terrorist group, but not the political party. Lebanon considers Hezbollah to be a legitimate resistance movement. This view is shared by Syria, Iran and all other countries in the Arab world.
References[change | change source]
- Elie Alagha, Joseph (2011). Hizbullah's Documents: From the 1985 Open Letter to the 2009 Manifesto. Amsterdam University Press. pp. 15, 20. ISBN 90-8555-037-8.
- Shehata, Samer (2012). Islamist Politics in the Middle East: Movements and Change. Routledge. p. 176. ISBN 0-415-78361-5.
- Husseinia, Rola El (2010). "Hezbollah and the Axis of Refusal: Hamas, Iran and Syria". Third World Quarterly 31 (5). http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01436597.2010.502695.
- Levitt, Matthew (2013). Hezbollah: The Global Footprint of Lebanon's Party of God.
Hezbollah's anti-Western militancy began with attacks against Western targets in Lebanon, then expanded to attacks abroad intended to exact revenge for actions threatening its or Iran's interests, or to press foreign governments to release captured operatives.
- Jamail, Dahr (July 20, 2006). "Hezbollah's transformation". Asia Times. Retrieved October 23, 2007.
- "A Tweet too far: US editor latest victim of Internet Inquisition". RT. Retrieved October 19, 2010.[dead link]
- "Hezbollah (a.k.a. Hizbollah, Hizbu'llah)". Council on Foreign Relations. September 13, 2008. Retrieved September 15, 2008.
- "Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTOs)". United States Department of State. October 11, 2005. Archived from the original on July 12, 2006. Retrieved July 16, 2006. "Current List of Designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations ... 14. Hizballah (Party of God)".
- "Summary of Terrorist Activity 2004". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. January 5, 2005. Retrieved September 5, 2013.
- "EU places Hezbollah military wing on terror blacklist". The Jerusalem Post. July 22, 2013. Retrieved July 22, 2013.
- "Proscribed terrorist organisations" (PDF). Home Office. November 23, 2012. Retrieved May 17, 2013.