History of Kurds

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History[change | change source]

Shaddadids[change | change source]

The ruins of Manuchihr Mosque, an 11th-century Shaddadid mosque built among the ruins of Ani
The ruling area of the Shaddadids and the Rawadids

The Shaddadids were a Kurdish dynasty[1][2][3][4] that ruled in Armenia and Arran between 951 and 1174. It was located between the Kura and Araxes rivers. They managed to dominate a large part of the Caucasus until the Seljuk ruler Toghrul came to the region.[5] It was first established in Dvin, and besides Dvin, it also dominated cities such as Barda and Ganja. The Shaddadis army organized expeditions against the Bagratuni dynasty and the Khazars from 1020 onwards. They was able to achieve success in the beginning, but on his way back from a successful campaign in 1030, he encountered Georgian and Armenian forces and suffered a heavy defeat. They fought against the Byzantine army between 1047 and 1057. In the following years, the influence of the Shaddadis in the region dwindled. From 1067 onwards, the Shaddadis dynasty was occupied by the Seljuks and continued as a dependent dynasty until 1174.[6][7] The cities of Ani and Tbilisi were given as gifts due to his service to the Seljuks.[8]

Rawwadids[change | change source]

Originally of Azdi Arab descent,[9] the Rawadids ruled Tabriz and northeastern Adharbayjan in the late 8th and early 9th centuries.[10]

Marwanids[change | change source]

Ruling area of the Marwanid dynasty
Medieval miniature depicting Marwanid assault on Byzantine Edessa in 1032

The Marwanids were a Kurdish dynasty[11][3][4] in the Diyar Bakr region of Upper Mesopotamia and Armenia. The founder of the Marwanids, Bad or Baz was a shepherd, took up arms and became a war chief, gained popularity, and from the middle of the tenth century embarked on conquests in Eastern Anatolia. He first came from the south and took Erciş and the fortified positions around it. Baz (Bad), strengthening his influence, captured Diyarbakir (Amid) and Silvan and Nusaybin, which were under the control of the Buyids.[12]

Taking advantage of the decline in the Buyid influence, in 984 he defeated Samsam al-Dawla, the sultan of the Buyids, and captured Mosul.[13] Although he wanted to take Baghdad, he failed and had to evacuate Mosul. In 991, (Bad) Baz, who moved to capture Mosul again, was defeated by the Hamdanids, the rulers of the city, and died in this battle. His sister's son Abu Ali Hasan ibn Marwan ascended the throne in 990.[14] Marwan made Mayyafariqin (Silvan) his capital. He continued to fight against the Hamdanids and defeated them twice. When Hasan ibn Marwan was assassinated in Amid (Diyarbakır) in 997, he was replaced by his brother Said ibn Marwan.[15] The Marwanid dynasty, enjoyed considerable economic and cultural prosperity, but Kurdish, the mother tongue of the rulers of the dynasty, does not to have any visibility either in the administration or in the cultural life of the court.[16] In 1085, the Seljuk army captured most of the region after a fierce battle.

References[change | change source]

  1. Bosworth 1996, p. 151.
  2. Peacock 2000.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Kennedy 2016, p. 215.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Vacca 2017, p. 7.
  5. KHACHATRyAN, A. A. (1979), Nijnetalinskaya Arabskaya Nadpis 570/11'74 Goda, PatmaBanasirakan Handes, IV, page. 1 88-198.
  6. Shaddadids, C.E. Bosworth, The Encyclopedia of Islam, Vol.IX, page 169.
  7. Andrew C. S. Peacock, Nomadic Society and the Seljūq Campaigns in Caucasia, page 216.
  8. Caucasica in the History of Mayyāfāriqīn, V. Minorsky, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Cilt 13, No. 1, 1949, Cambridge University Press, p. 29.
  9. The Encyclopaedia of Islam: MAH-MID
  10. Peacock 2017.
  11. Bosworth 1996, p. 89.
  12. Catherine Holmes, Basil II And the Governance of Empire, 976-1025, (Oxford University Press, 2005), 308.
  13. İbn Şeddâd, "Nusaybin Tarihi", çeviren: Doç. Dr. Hüseyin Güneş, Şırnak Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi, 2018/1, cilt: IX, sayı: 19, p. 232. (in Turkish).
  14. Catherine Holmes, Basil II And the Governance of Empire, 976-1025, (Oxford University Press, 2005), 309.
  15. Marwanids, Carole Hillenbrand, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. VI, ed. C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, B.Lewis and C. Pellat, (Brill, 1991), 626.
  16. Öpengin 2021, p. 612.

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