Jackson County, Florida

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Jackson County
Jackson County
Jackson County Courthouse
Official seal of Jackson County
Map of Florida highlighting Jackson County
Location within the U.S. state of Florida
Map of the United States highlighting Florida
Florida's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 30°48′N 85°13′W / 30.8°N 85.21°W / 30.8; -85.21
Country United States
State Florida
FoundedAugust 12, 1822
Named forAndrew Jackson
Largest cityMarianna
 • Total955 sq mi (2,470 km2)
 • Land918 sq mi (2,380 km2)
 • Water37 sq mi (100 km2)  3.9%%
 • Estimate 
 • Density54/sq mi (21/km2)
Time zoneUTC−6 (Central)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
Congressional district2nd

Jackson County is a county in the U.S. state of Florida. The population as of the 2000 census was 46,755. As of 2005, 48,985 people lived there.[1] Its county seat is Marianna, Florida.[2]

History[change | change source]

Jackson County was created by the Florida Territorial Council in 1822 by splitting from Escambia County, making it the third county in the Territory. The county was named for Andrew Jackson, who had served as Florida's first military governor for six months in 1821. Jackson County originally spread from the Choctawhatchee River on the west to the Suwannee River on the east. The county had been shrunk close to its current boundaries by 1840 through the creation of new counties from its original land. Small changes to the county border continued through most of the 19th century, however.[3][4][5]

There were no towns in Jackson County when it was formed. The first county court met at what was called "Robinson's Big Spring" (later called Blue Springs) in 1822 and then at the "Big Spring of the Choctawhatchee" in 1823. The following year the county court met at "Chipola Settlement" which is also known as Waddell's Mill Pond.

Marianna became the county seat, but not without controversy. It was founded by Robert Beveridge, a native of Scotland, in September 1827. The first town established in Jackson County was Webbville in January 1827. Webbville, a community of land squatters, was located 9 miles (14 km) northwest of present day Marianna and was named the county seat. Webbville thrived until 1828 when Beveridge and other Marianna settlers went to Tallahassee and enticed the Florida Legislature with free land, construction of a courthouse, a public square and $500 to purchase a quarter section of land to be sold at public auction as a way to finance the new government, if the county seat was moved to Marianna.

Beveridge and his supporters succeeded and Marianna became the county seat of the county justice and civil authority, even though it was never officially named the county seat. Marianna began to grow and prosper when the county government moved into the new courthouse in 1829. Webbville's important citizens moved to Marianna and the L&N Railroad decided to bypass the town.

From 1869-71, Jackson County was the center of a low-level guerrilla war known as the Jackson County War. Ku Klux Klan members, including Confederate Army veterans, assassinated over 150 Republican Party officials and important African-Americans as part of a successful campaign to retain conservative white Democratic power.[6]

Geography[change | change source]

According to the 2000 census, the county has a total area of 954.58 square miles (2,472.4 km2), of which 915.64 square miles (2,371.5 km2) (or 95.92%) is land and 38.94 square miles (100.9 km2) (or 4.08%) is water.[7] Jackson County is the only county in Florida that borders both Georgia and Alabama. Jackson County is in the Central Standard Time Zone. Its eastern border with Gadsden County forms the boundary in this area between the Central Standard and Eastern Standard Time Zones.

Counties nearby[change | change source]

Demographics[change | change source]

As of the census[8] of 2000, there were 46,755 people, 16,620 households, and 11,600 families living in the county. The population density was 51 people per square mile (20/km²). There were 19,490 housing units at an average density of 21 per square mile (8/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 70.18% White, 26.56% Black or African American, 0.67% Native American, 0.36% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.81% from other races, and 1.40% from two or more races. 2.91% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 16,620 households out of which 30.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.50% were married couples living together, 14.40% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.20% were not related. 27.00% of all households were made up of people living alone and 12.80% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.95.

In the county the population was spread out with 22.30% under the age of 18, 9.70% from 18 to 24, 29.60% from 25 to 44, 23.80% from 45 to 64, and 14.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 110.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 111.20 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $29,744, and the median income for a family was $36,404. Males had a median income of $27,138 versus $21,180 for females. The per capita income for the county was $13,905. About 12.80% of families and 17.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.70% of those under age 18 and 21.00% of those age 65 or over.

Cities and towns[change | change source]

Incorporated[change | change source]

Unincorporated[change | change source]

Politics[change | change source]

Presidential elections results
Year Republican Democratic Other
2008 63.5% 35.5% 1.0%
2004 61.2% 38.1% 0.7%
2000 56.1% 42.1% 1.8%

References[change | change source]

  1. https://www.census.gov/popest/counties/tables/CO-EST2005-01-12.xls
  2. "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  3. Jackson County Information Archived 2011-05-15 at the Wayback Machine - accessed February 10, 2008
  4. Encyclopedia Americana - Jackson, Andrew Archived 2008-02-10 at the Wayback Machine - accessed February 10, 2008
  5. Fernald, Edward A. (1981) Atlas of Florida. The Florida State University Foundation, Inc. ISBN 0-9606708-0-7
  6. Weitz, Seth. "Defending the Old South: The Myth of the Lost Cause and Political Immorality in Florida, 1885-1968." In The Historian, Vol. 71, No. 1 (Spring 2009), pg. 83.
  7. "Census 2000 U.S. Gazetteer Files: Counties". United States Census. Retrieved 2011-02-13.
  8. "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.

Other websites[change | change source]

Government links/Constitutional offices[change | change source]

Special districts[change | change source]

Judicial branch[change | change source]

Tourism links[change | change source]

Coordinates: 30°48′N 85°13′W / 30.80°N 85.21°W / 30.80; -85.21