List of largest stars

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Below is a list of the largest stars so far discovered, ordered by radius. The unit of measurement used is the radius of the Sun (696,392 km; 432,717.927 mi).

Note: This list is not perfectly defined.

List[change | change source]

List of the largest stars
Star name Solar radii
(Sun = 1)
Notes
UY Scuti 1,708 ± 192[1] Currently the largest star in the Milky Way and in the universe. Margin of error in size determination: ± 192 solar radii.
WOH G64 1,540[2]–1,730[3] Once thought to be 2,000 R☉ [4]
RW Cephei 1,535[5][6]
Westerlund 1-26 1,530-1,580[7] (-2,000[8])
VX Sagittarii 1,520[9]
HR 5171 A (V766 Centauri A) 1,490 ± 260[10] HR 5171 A is a highly distorted star in a close binary system, losing mass to the secondary. It may be the largest star of its type (yellow hypergiant) at 1,315 ± 260 R, although the latest research suggests it is a red supergiant.
KY Cygni 1,420-2,850[11]
VY Canis Majoris 1,420 ± 120[12] Once thought to be 1,800 - 2,100 solar radii[5]; a size so large that places it outside the bounds of stellar evolutionary theory.
AH Scorpii 1,411 ± 124[1]
VV Cephei A 1,400[13] (1,050[14]–1,900[11])
μ Cephei (Herschel's "Garnet Star") 1,260[15] (650[16]-1,420[11])
V354 Cephei (Case 75) 690[9]-1,520[11]
NML Cygni 1,183[17](-1,650)[18] NML Cyg is a semiregular variable star surrounded by a circumstellar nebula and is heavily obscured by dust extinction.
Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis) 1,180[19][20] Ninth brightest star in the night sky. The angular diameter of Betelgeuse is only exceeded by R Doradus and the Sun.
RT Carinae 1,090[11]
KW Sagittarii 1,009[1]-1,460[11] Margin of possible error: ± 142 solar radii (Torres 2013).
Antares A (Alpha Scorpii A) 883[21]
CW Leonis 826[17]
V382 Carinae 747[22] Yellow hypergiant, one of the rarest types of star.
TV Geminorum 620-710[23](-770[11])
The following well-known stars are listed for the purpose of comparison.
CE Tauri ("Ruby Star")[24] 608[25] Also known as 119 Tauri, unofficially nicknamed the Ruby Star. Can be occulted by the Moon, allowing accurate determination of its apparent diameter.
Rho Cassiopeiae 450 ± 50[26] Yellow hypergiant, one of the rarest types of a star.
Eta Carinae A (Tseen She) 60 - 800[27] Previously thought to be the most massive single star, but in 2005 it was realized to be a binary system. Its size is poorly defined.
Theta Muscae Ac 422 The second brightest Wolf-Rayet in the night sky. Even though it is the lightest star star in the system, ironically it is the largest star in the system.
V509 Cassiopeiae 400–900[28] Yellow hypergiant, one of the rarest types of a star.
R Leporis (Hind's "Crimson Star") 400 ± 90[29] One of the coolest stars existent in the Milky Way.
La Superba (Y Canum Venaticorum) 390[30] Currently one of the coolest and reddest stars.
V838 Monocerotis 380 ± 90[31] V838 Mon is a new type of object known as a Luminous red nova. Previously estimated the radius of V838 Monocerotis to be at 1,570 ± 400 solar radii; the very large cool "L-type supergiant" reported with this radius is a transient object which will contract rapidly over a few decades.[32] Once topped to the list as one of the largest stars, after experiencing a nova outburst it gradually decreased in size.
S Doradus 100–380[33] Prototype Luminous Blue Variable.
R Doradus 370 ± 50[34] Star with the second largest apparent size after the Sun.
Epsilon Aurigae A (Almaaz) 358[35] ε Aur was incorrectly hailed as the largest star with a radius around 2,700–3,000 R, even though it later turned out not to be an infrared light star but rather a dusk torus surrounding the system.
The Pistol Star 346 ± 40[36] Blue hypergiant, currently among the most massive and luminous stars.
Mira A (Omicron Ceti) 332–402[37] Prototype Mira variable.
Alpha Herculis (Ras Algethi) 264–303[38]
Delta Canis Majoris (Wezen) 237 ± 66[39] 36th brightest star in the night sky.
Deneb (Alpha Cygni) 220 ± 17[40] 19th brightest star in the night sky.
LBV 1806-20 >200[41] Formerly a candidate for the most luminous star in the Milky Way.
Beta Cygni A (Albireo) 109[42]
Peony Nebula Star 92[43] Candidate for most luminous star in the Milky Way.
Gamma Crucis (Gacrux) 84[44] The closest red giant star to the sun.
Rigel A (Beta Orionis A) 78.9 ± 7.4[45] Seventh brightest star in the night sky.
Canopus 71 ± 4[46] Second brightest star in the night sky.
Aldebaran (Alpha Tauri) 44.2 ± 0.9[47]
Polaris (Alpha Ursae Minoris) 37.5[48] The current north pole star.
R136a1 35.4[49] Also on the list as the most massive and luminous star.
Arcturus (Alpha Boötis) 25.4[50] Brightest star in the northern hemisphere.
HDE 226868 20–22[51] The supergiant companion of black hole Cygnus X-1. The black hole is 500,000 times smaller than the star.
VV Cephei B 13[52]-25[53] The B-type main sequence companion of VV Cephei A.
Sun 1 The largest object in the solar system.
The core hydrogen would be exhausted in 5 billion years. In 7 billion years, The Sun would reach the tip of the red-giant branch of the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, achieving its size of 256 to 436 R.[54][55]
Reported for reference

References[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Arroyo-Torres, B.; Wittkowski, M.; Marcaide, J. M.; Hauschildt, P. H. (2013). "The atmospheric structure and fundamental parameters of the red supergiants AH Scorpii, UY Scuti, and KW Sagittarii". Astronomy & Astrophysics 554: A76. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201220920.
  2. Emily M. Levesque; Philip Massey; Bertrand Plez; Knut A. G. Olsen (June 2009). "The Physical Properties of the Red Supergiant WOH G64: The Largest Star Known?". Astronomical Journal 137 (6): 4744. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/137/6/4744.
  3. Ohnaka, K.; Driebe, T.; Hofmann, K. H.; Weigelt, G.; Wittkowski, M. (2009). "Resolving the dusty torus and the mystery surrounding LMC red supergiant WOH G64". Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 4: 454. doi:10.1017/S1743921308028858.
  4. https://jumk.de/astronomie/big-stars/woh-g64.shtml
  5. 5.0 5.1 Humphreys, R. M. (1978). "Studies of luminous stars in nearby galaxies. I. Supergiants and O stars in the Milky Way". The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 38: 309. doi:10.1086/190559. Invalid <ref> tag; name "humphreys" defined multiple times with different content
  6. Davies, Ben; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Figer, Donald F. (2010). "The potential of red supergiants as extragalactic abundance probes at low spectral resolution". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 407 (2): 1203. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.16965.x.
  7. Wright, N. J.; Wesson, R.; Drew, J. E.; Barentsen, G.; Barlow, M. J.; Walsh, J. R.; Zijlstra, A.; Drake, J. J. et al. (16 October 2013). "The ionized nebula surrounding the red supergiant W26 in Westerlund 1". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters 437 (1): L1–L5. doi:10.1093/mnrasl/slt127.
  8. https://arxiv.org/pdf/1105.0776v1.pdf
  9. 9.0 9.1 Mauron, N.; Josselin, E. (2011). "The mass-loss rates of red supergiants and the de Jager prescription". Astronomy and Astrophysics 526: A156. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201013993.
  10. Wittkowski, M.; Arroyo-Torres, B.; Marcaide, J. M.; Abellan, F. J.; Chiavassa, A.; Guirado, J. C. (2017). "VLTI/AMBER spectro-interferometry of the late-type supergiants V766 Cen (=HR 5171 A), σ Oph, BM Sco, and HD 206859". Astronomy & Astrophysics 597: A9. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201629349.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 Table 4 in Levesque, Emily M.; Massey, Philip; Olsen, K. A. G.; Plez, Bertrand; Josselin, Eric; Maeder, Andre; Meynet, Georges (2005). "The Effective Temperature Scale of Galactic Red Supergiants: Cool, but Not as Cool as We Thought". The Astrophysical Journal 628 (2): 973. doi:10.1086/430901.
  12. Wittkowski, M.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Arroyo-Torres, B.; Marcaide, J. M. (2012). "Fundamental properties and atmospheric structure of the red supergiant VY Canis Majoris based on VLTI/AMBER spectro-interferometry". Astronomy & Astrophysics 540: L12. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201219126.
  13. Ridpath & Tirion 2001, pp. 112–113.
  14. Bauer, W. H.; Gull, T. R.; Bennett, P. D. (2008). "Spatial Extension in the Ultraviolet Spectrum of Vv Cephei". The Astronomical Journal 136 (3): 1312. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/136/3/1312.
  15. Josselin, E.; Plez, B. (2007). "Atmospheric dynamics and the mass loss process in red supergiant stars". Astronomy and Astrophysics 469 (2): 671–680. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20066353.
  16. Tsuji, Takashi (2000). "Water in Emission in the Infrared Space Observatory Spectrum of the Early M Supergiant Star μ Cephei". The Astrophysical Journal Letters 540 (2): 99–102. doi:10.1086/312879.
  17. 17.0 17.1 De Beck, E.; Decin, L.; De Koter, A.; Justtanont, K.; Verhoelst, T.; Kemper, F.; Menten, K. M. (2010). "Probing the mass-loss history of AGB and red supergiant stars from CO rotational line profiles. II. CO line survey of evolved stars: Derivation of mass-loss rate formulae". Astronomy and Astrophysics 523: A18. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/200913771.
  18. Zhang, B.; Reid, M. J.; Menten, K. M.; Zheng, X. W.; Brunthaler, A. (2012). "The distance and size of the red hypergiant NML Cygni from VLBA and VLA astrometry". Astronomy & Astrophysics 544: A42. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201219587.
  19. Smith, Nathan; Hinkle, Kenneth H.; Ryde, Nils (March 2009). "Red Supergiants as Potential Type IIn Supernova Progenitors: Spatially Resolved 4.6 μm CO Emission Around VY CMa and Betelgeuse". The Astronomical Journal 137 (3): 3558–3573. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/137/3/3558.
  20. Dolan, Michelle M.; Mathews, Grant J.; Lam, Doan Duc; Lan, Nguyen Quynh; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Dearborn, David S. P. (2016). "Evolutionary Tracks for Betelgeuse". The Astrophysical Journal 819: 7. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/819/1/7.
  21. Baade, R.; Reimers, D. (October 2007). "Multi-component absorption lines in the HST spectra of α Scorpii B". Astronomy and Astrophysics 474 (1): 229–237. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20077308.
  22. Achmad, L. (1992). "A photometric study of the G0-4 Ia(+) hypergiant HD 96918 (V382 Carinae)". Astronomy and Astrophysics 259: 600–606.
  23. Wasatonic, Richard P.; Guinan, Edward F.; Durbin, Allyn J. (2015). "V-Band, Near-IR, and TiO Photometry of the Semi-Regular Red Supergiant TV Geminorum: Long-Term Quasi-Periodic Changes in Temperature, Radius, and Luminosity". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Pacific 127 (956): 1010. doi:10.1086/683261.
  24. "Big and Giant Stars"
  25. https://sites.google.com/site/insanemathmatics/space-maths/largest-known-stars
  26. Gorlova, N.; Lobel, A.; Burgasser, A. J.; Rieke, G. H.; Ilyin, I.; Stauffer, J. R. (2006). "On the CO Near‐Infrared Band and the Line‐splitting Phenomenon in the Yellow Hypergiant ρ Cassiopeiae". The Astrophysical Journal 651 (2): 1130–1150. doi:10.1086/507590.
  27. Gull, T. R.; Damineli, A. (2010). "JD13 – Eta Carinae in the Context of the Most Massive Stars". Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 5: 373. doi:10.1017/S1743921310009890.
  28. Nieuwenhuijzen, H.; De Jager, C.; Kolka, I.; Israelian, G.; Lobel, A.; Zsoldos, E.; Maeder, A.; Meynet, G. (2012). "The hypergiant HR 8752 evolving through the yellow evolutionary void". Astronomy & Astrophysics 546: A105. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201117166.
  29. Hofmann, K.-H.; Eberhardt, M.; Driebe, T.; Schertl, D.; Scholz, M.; Schoeller, M.; Weigelt, G.; Wittkowski, M. et al. (2005). "Interferometric observations of the Mira star o Ceti with the VLTI/VINCI instrument in the near-infrared". Proceedings of the 13th Cambridge Workshop on Cool Stars 560: 651.
  30. Luttermoser, Donald G.; Brown, Alexander (1992). "A VLA 3.6 centimeter survey of N-type carbon stars". Astrophysical Journal 384: 634. doi:10.1086/170905.
  31. Tylenda, R.; Kamiński, T.; Schmidt, M.; Kurtev, R.; Tomov, T. (2011). "High-resolution optical spectroscopy of V838 Monocerotis in 2009". Astronomy & Astrophysics 532: A138. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201116858.
  32. Lane, B. F.; Retter, A.; Thompson, R. R.; Eisner, J. A. (April 2005). "Interferometric Observations of V838 Monocerotis". The Astrophysical Journal (The American Astronomical Society) 622 (2): L137–L140. doi:10.1086/429619.
  33. Lamers, H. J. G. L. M. (February 6–10, 1995). "Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 155, Astrophysical applications of stellar pulsation". 83 : 176–191Cape Town, South Africa: Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 
  34. Bedding, T. R.; et al. (April 1997), "The angular diameter of R Doradus: a nearby Mira-like star", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 286 (4): 957–962, arXiv:astro-ph/9701021Freely accessible, Bibcode:1997MNRAS.286..957B, doi:10.1093/mnras/286.4.957 
  35. Kloppenborg, B.K.; Stencel, R.E.; Monnier, J.D.; Schaefer, G.H.; Baron, F.; Tycner, C.; Zavala, R. T.; Hutter, D. et al. (2015). "Interferometry of ɛ Aurigae: Characterization of the Asymmetric Eclipsing Disk". The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 220: 14. doi:10.1088/0067-0049/220/1/14.
  36. Najarro, F.; Figer, D. F.; Hillier, D. J.; Geballe, T. R.; Kudritzki, R. P. (2009). "Metallicity in the Galactic Center: The Quintuplet Cluster". The Astrophysical Journal 691 (2): 1816. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/691/2/1816.
  37. Woodruff, H. C.; Eberhardt, M.; Driebe, T.; Hofmann, K.-H. et al. (2004). "Interferometric observations of the Mira star o Ceti with the VLTI/VINCI instrument in the near-infrared". Astronomy & Astrophysics 421 (2): 703–714. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20035826.
  38. Moravveji, Ehsan; Guinan, Edward F.; Khosroshahi, Habib; Wasatonic, Rick (2013). "The Age and Mass of the α Herculis Triple-star System from a MESA Grid of Rotating Stars with 1.3 <= M/M ⊙ <= 8.0". The Astronomical Journal 146 (6): 148. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/146/6/148.
  39. Davis, J.; Booth, A. J.; Ireland, M. J.; Jacob, A. P.; North, J. R.; Owens, S. M.; Robertson, J. G.; Tango, W. J. et al. (2007). "The Emergent Flux and Effective Temperature of Delta Canis Majoris". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia 24 (3): 151. doi:10.1071/AS07017.
  40. Schiller, F.; Przybilla, N. (2008). "Quantitative spectroscopy of Deneb". Astronomy & Astrophysics 479 (3): 849–858. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078590.
  41. https://jumk.de/astronomie/big-stars/lbv-1806-20.shtml
  42. "Albireo". Big and Giant Stars. 
  43. Barniske, A.; Oskinova, L. M.; Hamann, W. -R. (2008). "Two extremely luminous WN stars in the Galactic center with circumstellar emission from dust and gas". Astronomy and Astrophysics 486 (3): 971. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:200809568.
  44. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named mnras350_1_365.
  45. Moravveji, Ehsan; Guinan, Edward F.; Shultz, Matt; Williamson, Michael H.; Moya, Andres (March 2012). "Asteroseismology of the nearby SN-II Progenitor: Rigel. Part I. The MOST High-precision Photometry and Radial Velocity Monitoring". The Astrophysical Journal 747 (1): 108–115. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/747/2/108.
  46. Cruzalebes, P.; Jorissen, A.; Rabbia, Y.; Sacuto, S.; Chiavassa, A.; Pasquato, E.; Plez, B.; Eriksson, K. et al. (2013). "Fundamental parameters of 16 late-type stars derived from their angular diameter measured with VLTI/AMBER". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 434 (1): 437–450. doi:10.1093/mnras/stt1037.
  47. Richichi, A.; Roccatagliata, V. (2005). "Aldebaran's angular diameter: how well do we know it?". Astronomy and Astrophysics 433: 305–312. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20041765.
  48. Fadeyev, Y. A. (2015). "Evolutionary status of Polaris". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 449: 1011. doi:10.1093/mnras/stv412.
  49. Crowther, P. A.; Schnurr, O.; Hirschi, R.; Yusof, N.; Parker, R. J.; Goodwin, S. P.; Kassim, H. A. (2010). "The R136 star cluster hosts several stars whose individual masses greatly exceed the accepted 150 M stellar mass limit". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 408 (2): 731. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.17167.x.
  50. I. Ramírez; C. Allende Prieto (December 2011). "Fundamental Parameters and Chemical Composition of Arcturus". The Astrophysical Journal 743 (2): 135. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/743/2/135.
  51. Ziółkowski, J. (2005), "Evolutionary constraints on the masses of the components of HDE 226868/Cyg X-1 binary system", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 358 (3): 851–859, arXiv:astro-ph/0501102Freely accessible, Bibcode:2005MNRAS.358..851Z, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2005.08796.x  Note: for radius and luminosity, see Table 1 with d=2 kpc.
  52. Wright, K. O. (1977). "The system of VV Cephei derived from an analysis of the H-alpha line". Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada 71: 152.
  53. Hack, M.; Engin, S.; Yilmaz, N.; Sedmak, G.; Rusconi, L.; Boehm, C. (1992). "Spectroscopic study of the atmospheric eclipsing binary VV Cephei". Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement Series (ISSN0365-0138) 95: 589.
  54. Rybicki, K. R.; Denis, C. (2001). "On the Final Destiny of the Earth and the Solar System". Icarus 151 (1): 130–137. doi:10.1006/icar.2001.6591.
  55. Schroder, K. P.; Connon Smith, Robert (2008). "Distant Future of the Sun and Earth Revisited". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 386 (1): 155–163. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.13022.x.