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A loanword is a word that is adopted by a language that comes from another language. Since people who speak different languages often need to talk to each other, it is actually very common for languages to "borrow" words from other languages.
Examples of this can be seen in the English language because it has many loanwords. When the Normans took over England during the Norman Conquest in 1066, they made French the official language of England. Since then, many French words later became English words. For example, the English words beef, pork, poultry, and mutton are loanwords based on the Norman French names of the animals cow, swine, chicken, and sheep in that same order. In English, the loanwords mean the meat of those animals specifically. Since later the British Empire took over many different countries and people, they also borrowed many words from the languages of the people they took over. An example of this is the word "jungle", which is a Hindi word that has been adopted into English.