Mi'kmaq

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Mi'kmaq
Mikmaq State Flag.svg
(one of the) Míkmaq State flags
Total population

40,000

Regions with significant populations
Canada (New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Quebec), United States (Maine)
Languages
English, Míkmaq, French
Religions
Christianity, other
Related ethnic groups
other Algonquian peoples
The Mi'kmaq

The Mi'kmaq ([miːgmaɣ]; (also spelled Míkmaq, Mi'gmaq, Mi'qmac, or formerly Micmac) are a First Nations or Native American in the United States people, indigenous to northeastern New England, Canada's Atlantic Provinces, and the Gaspé Peninsula of Quebec. The word Míkmaw is an adjectival form of the plural noun for the people, Míkmaq.

The nation has a population of about 40,000 of whom approximately one-third still speak the Algonquian language L'nuí'simk which was once written in Míkmaq hieroglyphic writing and is now written using most letters of the standard Latin alphabet.

In the Canadian provinces of Nova Scotia and Newfoundland and Labrador, October is celebrated as Mi'kmaq History Month and the entire Nation celebrates Treaty Day annually on October 1.

Mi'kmaq First Nation subdivisions[change | edit source]

Mi'kmaq names in the table have all been spelled according to a several orthographies. The Mi'kmaq orthographies in use are Mí'kmaq hieroglyphs, the orthography of Silas Tertius Rand, the Pacifique orthography, and the most recent Smith-Francis orthography, which has been adopted by most of the Mi'kmaq First Nation.

Community Province/State Town/Reserve Est. Pop. Míkmaq name
Abegweit First Nation PE Scotchfort, Rocky Point, Morell 396 Epekwitk
Acadia NS Yarmouth 996 Malikiaq
Annapolis Valley NS Cambridge Station 219 Kampalijek
Aroostook Band of Micmac ME Presque Isle 920 Ulustuk
Bear River First Nation NS Bear River 272 L’setkuk
Buctouche First Nation NB Buctouche 80 Puktusk
Burnt Church First Nation NB Burnt Church 14 1,488 Eskinuopitijk
Chapel Island First Nation NS Chapel Island 576 Potlotek
Eel Ground First Nation NB Eel Ground 844 Natuaqanek
Eel River Bar First Nation NB Eel River Bar 589 Oqpíkanjik
Elsipogtog First Nation NB Big Cove 3000+ Lsipuktuk
Eskasoni First Nation NS Eskasoni 3,800+ We'kistoqnik
Fort Folly First Nation NB Dorchester 105 Amlamkuk Kwesawék
Micmacs of Gesgapegiag QC Maria 1,174 Keskapekiaq
Nation Micmac de Gespeg QC Fontenelle 490 Kespék
Glooscap First Nation NS Hantsport  ? Pesikitk
Indian Island First Nation NB Indian Island 145 L’nui Menikuk
Lennox Island First Nation PE Lennox Island 700 L’nui Mnikuk
Listuguj Mi'gmaq First Nation QC Listuguj Mi'gmaq First Nation 3,166 Listikujk
Membertou First Nation NS Sydney 1,051 Maupeltuk
Metepenagiag Míkmaq Nation NB Red Bank 527 Metepnákiaq
Miawpukek First Nation NL Conne River 2,366 Miawpukwek
Millbrook First Nation NS Truro 1400 Wékopekwitk
Pabineau First Nation NB Pabineau 214 Kékwapskuk
Paq’tnkek First Nation NS Afton 1 Paqtnkek
Pictou Landing First Nation NS Trenton 547 Puksaqtéknékatik
Indian Brook First Nation NS Indian Brook (Shubenacadie) 2,120 Sipekníkatik
Wagmatcook First Nation NS Wagmatcook 623 Waqmitkuk
Waycobah First Nation NS Whycocomagh 900 Wékoqmáq


Demographics[change | edit source]

Year Population Verification
1500      4,500 Estimation
1600      3,000 Estimation
1700      2,000 Estimation
1750      3,000 Estimation
1800      3,100 Estimation
1900      4,000 Census
1940      5,000 Census
1960      6,000 Census
1972      9,800 Census
2000    20,000 Estimation

References[change | edit source]

  • Rita Joe, Lesley Choyce. 2005. The Mi'kmaq Anthology, Nimbus Publishing (CN), 2005, ISBN

Documentary film[change | edit source]

  • Our Lives in Our Hands (Mi'kmaq basketmakers and potato diggers in northern Maine, 1986) [1]

Other websites[change | edit source]