Palm wine

From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Palm wine
Bottles and a glass of palm wine
TypeAlcoholic beverage
Country of originWorldwide

Palm wine, is an alcoholic drink made from the sap of palm trees such as the palmyra, date palms, and coconut palms.[1] It is common in various parts of Africa, the Caribbean, South America, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Micronesia.

Palm wine production by smallholders and individual farmers may help conservation. Palm trees may become a source of regular household income. This may be worth more than the value of timber sold.[2][3]

Tapping[change | change source]

Toddy collectors at work on Cocos nucifera palms
Tapping palm sap in East Timor

The sap is extracted and collected by a tapper. The sap is usually collected from the cut flower of the palm tree. A container is fastened to the flower stump to collect the sap. The white liquid that initially collects tends to be very sweet. It is not alcoholic before it is fermented. Another method is the felling of the entire tree. When this is done a fire is sometimes lit at the cut end to help the collection of sap.

Palm sap starts fermenting immediately after it is collected. This is due to natural yeasts in the air (often helped by yeast left in the collecting container). Within two hours, fermentation produces an aromatic wine of up to 4% alcohol content, mildly intoxicating and sweet. The wine may be allowed to ferment longer, up to a day, for a stronger, more sour, and acidic taste, which some people prefer. Longer fermentation produces vinegar instead of stronger wine.[4]

Distilled[change | change source]

Palm wine may be distilled to create a stronger drink, which goes by different names depending on the region (e.g., arrack, palm feni (liquor), sopi, village gin, charayam, and country whiskey).

In Nigeria, this is commonly called palm wine. In southwestern Nigeria and some parts of Cameroon, it is also known as Emu or "Matango". In both Congos, it is called nsámbá. In parts of southern Ghana, distilled palm wine is called akpeteshi or burukutu. In Togo and Benin, it is called sodabe. In Tunisia it is called lagmi. In coastal parts of Kenya, it is known as "mnazi". In India, it is called "toddy". In Ivory Coast, it is called "koutoukou".

In the Philippines, the most common distilled palm liquor is lambanog which is made from aged tubâ. It has very high alcohol by volume, at 40 to 45% abv (80 to 90 proof).

References[change | change source]

  1. Rundel, Philip W. The Chilean Wine Palm Archived 4 January 2006 at the Wayback Machine in the Mildred E. Mathias Botanical Garden Newsletter, Fall 2002, Volume 5(4). Retrieved 31 August 2008
  2. Confirel:Sugar Palm Tree – Conservation of natural heritage. Retrieved 15 April 2012
  3. "Palm Wine Production". Comundos. 2020-01-30. Retrieved 2022-07-23.
  4. "Fermented and vegetables. A global perspective. Chapter 4". Retrieved 5 February 2018.