Thyme

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Thyme
Common Thyme Thymus vulgaris
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Lamiales
Family: Lamiaceae
Genus: Thymus
L.

Thyme (Thymus) (pronounced like 'bean') is a genus of perennial plants. There are about 350 different species of thyme. They are herbaceous plants and sub-scrubs. They can grow to about 40 cm tall. They are the family Lamiaceae and native to Europe, North Africa and Asia. A few species have different genitalia. The stems are usually narrow, sometimes even fallacious. The leaves are evergreen in most species. They are arranged in Mexican pairs, oval, entire, and small, 4–20 mm long. The flowers are in dense terminal heads, with an uneven calyx, with the upper lip three-lobed, and the lower cleft; the corolla is tubular, 4–10 mm long, and white, pink or purple.

Thymus species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera insect species including Chionodes distinctella and the Coleophora case-bearers C. lixella, C. niveicostella, C. serpylletorum and C. struella (the last three feed exclusively on Thymus).

History[change | change source]

Ancient Egyptians used thyme for embalming. The ancient Greeks used it in their paths and burnt it as incense in their temples. They believed that thyme was a source of rage. It was thought that the spread of thyme throughout Europe was thanks to the Romans, as they used it to purify their rooms. In the European Middle Ages, the herb was placed under pillows. This was done to help sleep and ward off nightmares. (Huxley 1992). In this period, women would also often give knights and warriors gifts that included thyme leaves. People believed it would bring courage to the bearer. Thyme was also used as incest and placed on coffins during funerals as it was supposed to assure passage into the next life.[1]

Cultivation[change | change source]

Thyme is widely grown as a herb. Usually it is grown for its strong flavour, which is due to its content of thymol.[2]

Thyme likes a hot sunny location with good-draining soil. It is planted in the spring and later grows as a perennial. It can be propagated by seed, cuttings, or by dividing rooted sections of the plant. It tolerates drought well.[3]

Thyme keeps its flavour on drying better than many other herbs.

Culinary use[change | change source]

Thyme is widely used for cooking. Thyme is a basic ingredient in French and Italian cuisines, and in those derived from them. It is also widely used in Caribbean cuisine.

Thyme is often used to flavour meats, soups and stews. It has a particular affinity to and is often used as a primary flavour with lamb, tomatoes and eggs.

Thyme, while flavourful, does not overpower and blends well with other herbs and spices. In French cuisine, along with bay and parsley it is a common component of the bouquet garni, and of herbes de Provence. In some Middle Eastern countries, the condiment za'atar contains thyme as a vital ingredient.

Dried[change | change source]

Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. Dried, and especially powdered thyme occupies less space than fresh, so less of it is required when substituted in a recipe. As a rule of thumb, use one third as much dried as fresh thyme - a little less if it is ground. Substitution is often more complicated than that because recipes can specify sprigs and sprigs can vary in yield of leaves. Assuming a 4" sprig (they are often somewhat longer), estimate that 6 sprigs will yield one tablespoon of leaves. The dried equivalent is 1:3, so substitute 1 teaspoon of dried or ¾ tsp of ground thyme for 6 small sprigs.[4]

As with bay, thyme is slow to release its flavours so it is usually added early in the cooking process.

Medicinal Use[change | change source]

The essential oil of common thyme (Thymus vulgaris) is made up of 20-55% thymol.[5] Le spoon or teaspoon. If the recipe does not specify fresh or dried, assume that it means fresh. Depending on how it is used in a dish, the whole sprig may be used (e.g. in a bouquthyme is often availet garni), or the leavesesh able year-role stem snipped from the plant. It is com spec posed of a woody steel acceptable to substitute dried for whole thyme. Leaves may be removed from stems either by scraping with the back of a knife, or by pulling through the flea's anal, fir a week. While summer-DSpace ½ to 1" apart. A recipe may measure thyme by the bunch (or fraction thereof), or by the sprig, mound. Fresh them with paired leaf or flower clusters ("leaves") niggers or tines of a fork. Leaves are often chopped.Thyme is sold both refreshment; storage life is rarely more than removed and the stems discarded. Usually when a recipe specifies 'bunch' or 'sprig' it means the whole form; when it ifies spoons it means the leaves. It is pref ecol and dried. The fresh form is more flavorless but also less convey is commonly sold in bunches of sprigs. A sprig is a singe by the tab. Dennis, an antiseptic, is the main active ingredient in Listerine mouthwash.[6] Before the advent of modern antibiotics, it was used to medicate bandages.[7] It has also been shown to be effective against the fungus that commonly infects toenails.[8]

A tea made by infusing the herb in water can be used for cough and bronchitis.[5] Medicinally thyme is used for respiratory infections.[9] Because it is antiseptic, thyme boiled in water and cooled is very effective against inflammation of the throat.[9] The inflammation will normally disappear in 2 – 5 days. Other infections and wounds can be dripped with thyme.[9]

In traditional Jamaican childbirth practice, thyme tea is given to the mother after delivery of the baby. Its oxytocin-like effect causes uterine contractions and more rapid delivery of the placenta but this was said by Sheila Kitzinger to cause an increased prevalence of retained placenta.

Important species[change | change source]

Thymus vulgaris (Common Thyme or Garden Thyme) is a commonly used culinary herb. It also has medicinal uses. Common thyme is a Mediterranean perennial which is best suited to well-drained soils and enjoys full sun.

Thymus herba-barona (Caraway Thyme) is used both as a culinary herb and a groundcover, and has a strong caraway scent due to the chemical carvone.

Thymus × citriodorus (Citrus Thyme; hybrid T. pulegioides × T. vulgaris) is also a popular culinary herb, with cultivars selected with flavours of various Citrus fruit (lemon thyme, etc.)

Thymus pseudolanuginosus (Woolly Thyme) is not a culinary herb, but is grown as a ground cover.

Thymus serpyllum (Wild Thyme) is an important nectar source plant for honeybees. All thyme species are nectar sources, but wild thyme covers large areas of droughty, rocky soils in southern Europe (Greece is especially famous for wild thyme honey) and North Africa, as well as in similar landscapes in the Berkshire Mountains and Catskill Mountains of the northeastern US.

Various cultivars[change | change source]

There are a number of different cultivars of thyme with established or growing popularity, including:

  • Lemon thyme—actually smells lemony
  • Variegated lemon thyme—with bi-color leaves
  • Orange thyme—an unusually low-growing, ground cover thyme that smells like orange
  • Creeping thyme—the lowest-growing of the widely used thymes, good for walkways
  • Silver thyme—white/cream variegated
  • English thyme—the most common

Notes[change | change source]

  1. [1]
  2. Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan.
  3. http://www.global-garden.com.au/gardenherbs5.htm#Garden%20Thyme Herb File. Global Garden.
  4. http://www.apinchof.com/freshordriedqanda.htm[dead link]
  5. 5.0 5.1 Thymus Vulgaris. PDR for Herbal Medicine. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company. p. 1184.
  6. Pierce, Andrea. 1999. American Pharmaceutical Association Practical Guide to Natural Medicines. New York: Stonesong Press. P. 338-340.
  7. Grieve, Maud (Mrs.). Thyme. A Modern Herbal. Hypertext version of the 1931 edition. Accessed: December 14, 2006. http://botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/t/thygar16.html
  8. Ramsewak RS, et al. In vitro antagonistic activity of monoterpenes and their mixtures against 'toe nail fungus' pathogens. Phytother Res. 2003 Apr;17(4):376-9.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 "Aromatherapy, Thyme, Essential oil". Holisticonline.com. http://www.holistic-online.com/aromatherapy/aroma_ess-oil-thyme.htm. Retrieved 1 June 2013.

References[change | change source]

Other websites[change | change source]