Supreme Court of the United States

From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from United States Supreme Court)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
The Roberts Court, 2020
Back row (left to right): Brett Kavanaugh, Elena Kagan, Neil Gorsuch, and Amy Coney Barrett. Front row (left to right): Samuel Alito, Clarence Thomas, Chief Justice John Roberts, Stephen Breyer, and Sonia Sotomayor

The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the United States of America. Because of this, the Court leads the Judicial Branch of the United States Federal Government. It is the only U.S. court established by the United States Constitution. Its decisions are supposed to be followed by all other courts in the United States. The Court meets in its own building in Washington, D.C. However, until 1935, the Supreme Court met in the United States Capitol.

Background[change | change source]

There are 9 justices on the court now: one Chief Justice and eight Associate Justices. The most recent justice, Amy Coney Barrett, replaced Ruth Bader Ginsburg after she died. Courts are unofficially named for the Chief Justice; the current Court is called the "Roberts Court" after Chief Justice John Roberts.

The Supreme Court chooses which cases it will decide on. Many people ask the Supreme Court to decide their cases, but the court refuses most of them. For the Supreme Court to decide a case, the case must be about federal law or be about the laws of more than one state. Cases must first be decided by a federal District Court and a federal Court of Appeals or by a state supreme court. Even after that, the Supreme Court can choose not to decide a case for any reason. There are some cases that can start in the Supreme Court and that the Supreme Court must decide, but those are rare.

The justices serve for life unless they want to retire earlier or are impeached. If a justice retires, he or she can still be asked to serve as a judge on a federal Court of Appeals. New justices are nominated (picked) by the President of the United States, and later must be approved by the United States Senate. In February 2022, President Joe Biden nominated Ketanji Brown Jackson to succeed retiring Justice Stephen Bryer, who if confirmed would become the first female African American supreme court justice.[1]

The present Court[change | change source]

The current court is named "The Roberts Court" named after Chief Justice John Roberts.

Justice /
birthdate and place
Appointed by SCV Age at Start date /
length of service
Previous position or office
(most recent prior to joining the Court)
Replaced
Start Present
File-Official roberts CJ cropped.jpg John Roberts
(1955-01-27) January 27, 1955 (age 67)
Buffalo, New York
G. W. Bush 78–22 50 67 September 29, 2005
16 years, 234 days
Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit (2003–2005) Rehnquist
Clarence Thomas official SCOTUS portrait (cropped).jpg Clarence Thomas
(1948-06-23) June 23, 1948 (age 73)
Pin Point, Georgia
G. H. W. Bush 52–48 43 73 October 23, 1991
30 years, 210 days
Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit (1990–1991) Marshall
Stephen Breyer official SCOTUS portrait crop.jpg Stephen Breyer
(1938-08-15) August 15, 1938 (age 83)
San Francisco, California
Clinton 87–9 55 83 August 3, 1994
27 years, 291 days
Chief Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit (1990–1994) Blackmun
Samuel Alito official photo (cropped).jpg Samuel Alito
(1950-04-01) April 1, 1950 (age 72)
Trenton, New Jersey
G. W. Bush 58–42 55 72 January 31, 2006
16 years, 110 days
Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit (1990–2006) O'Connor
Sonia Sotomayor in SCOTUS robe crop.jpg Sonia Sotomayor
(1954-06-25) June 25, 1954 (age 67)
The Bronx, New York
Obama 68–31 55 67 August 8, 2009
12 years, 286 days
Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit (1998–2009) Souter
Elena Kagan-1-1.jpg Elena Kagan
(1960-04-28) April 28, 1960 (age 62)
Manhattan, New York
Obama 63–37 50 62 August 7, 2010
11 years, 287 days
Solicitor General of the United States (2009–2010) Stevens
Associate Justice Neil Gorsuch Official Portrait (cropped 2).jpg Neil Gorsuch
(1967-08-29) August 29, 1967 (age 54)
Denver, Colorado
Trump 54–45 49 54 April 10, 2017
5 years, 41 days
Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit (2006–2017) Scalia
Associate Justice Brett Kavanaugh Official Portrait.jpg Brett Kavanaugh
(1965-02-12) February 12, 1965 (age 57)
Washington, D.C.
Trump 50–48 53 57 October 6, 2018
3 years, 227 days
Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit (2006–2018) Kennedy
Amy Coney Barrett.png Amy Coney Barrett
(1972-01-28) January 28, 1972 (age 50)
New Orleans, Louisiana
Trump 52–48 48 50 October 27, 2020
1 year, 206 days
Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit (2017–2020) Ginsburg
     Source: [2]
Ketanji Brown Jackson CADC (cropped).jpg Ketanji Brown Jackson
(1970-09-14) September 14, 1970 (age 51)
Washington, D.C.
Biden 53–47 52 51 Designate
Summer 2022
Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit (since 2021) Breyer
Designate-Associate Justice     Source: [3]

Living former justices[change | change source]

Retired justices of the Supreme Court[2]
Justice
Birthdate and place
Appointed by Retired under Age at Tenure
Start Retirement Present Start date End date Length
Sandra Day O'Connor crop.jpg Sandra Day O'Connor
(1930-03-26) March 26, 1930 (age 92)
El Paso, Texas
Reagan G. W. Bush 51 75 March 26, 1930 September 25, 1981 January 31, 2006 24 years, 128 days
Anthony Kennedy official SCOTUS portrait crop.jpg Anthony Kennedy
(1936-07-23) July 23, 1936 (age 85)
Sacramento, California
Reagan Trump 51 82 July 23, 1936 February 18, 1988 July 31, 2018 30 years, 163 days
DavidSouter.jpg David Souter
(1939-09-17) September 17, 1939 (age 82)
Melrose, Massachusetts
G. H. W. Bush Obama 51 69 82 October 9, 1990 June 29, 2009 18 years, 263 days

References[change | change source]

  1. Leu, Kristen (2022-02-27). "United States: First black woman judge nominated in Supreme Court". Khaleej Mag - News and Stories from Around the World. Retrieved 2022-02-28.
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Current Members". www.supremecourt.gov. Washington, D.C.: Supreme Court of the United States. Retrieved October 21, 2018.
  3. "Ketanji Brown Jackson Confirmed for Supreme Court: Here's When She'll Be Sworn In". CNET. Retrieved April 7, 2022.