User:Yodas henchman/1st Provisional Marine Brigade

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    1st Provisional Marine Brigade
    Officers of the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade
    Officers of the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade
    Founded22 May 1912
    Disbanded13 September 1950
    Country United States
    Branch United States Marine Corps
    TypeMarine brigade
    RoleInfantry
    SizeBrigade
    Nickname(s)"Fire Brigade"
    EngagementsNegro Rebellion

    World War II

    • Allied occupation of Iceland
    • Invasion of Guam

    Korean War

    • Battle of Masan
    • 1st Battle of Naktong Bulge
    • 2nd Battle of Naktong Bulge
    • Battle of Yongsan
    • Battle of Pusan
    DecorationsSee Section
    Commanders
    Notable
    commanders
    • John Marston
    • Lemuel C. Shepherd
    • Edward A. Craig
    Insignia
    Patch of the 1st PMB and 49th IB49th Inf Brigade (Logo Polar Bears).jpg

    The 1st Provisinal Marine Brigade was a brigade in the United States Marine Corps. It started in 1912 and was disbanded in 1951. The day it was founded is not known, but the day it got disbanded is. It was not made as a permanent unit that would be in the USMC. Still, the 1st Marine Brigade existed and fought.

    They had 40 years of fighting. They were first founded in 1912 to fight in the "Negro Rebellion" in Cuba, then they fought in World War II in Iceland and Guam with amphibious attacks, meaning that they used ships to land. After the war ended, they later fought in the Korean War.

    They quickly were reformed and reactivated during 1950 for the Korean War, they would help troops in the Battle of Pusan Perimeter, as well as other battles around the time. They were disbanded on September 13, 1951.

    History[change | change source]

    Negro Rebellion & Formation[change | change source]

    The Negro Rebellion happened in 1912, the year where the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade gets formed. The Negro Rebellion was a war where Black Cubans rioted and fought the United States for independence[1] because the United States used to own Cuba and the Philippines since the rebels used to be Slaves of the United States and they were from Africa but lived in Cuba.

    A small regiment named the 1st Provisional Marine Regiment was made by a colonel named Lincoln Karmany. It was made in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on May 22nd, and it had 450 men. There was also the 2nd Provisional Marine Regiment that was made at the same time by Colonel James Mahoney in Key West, Florida. It had about 750 men.[1]

    They both came to Cuba in the USS Prairie, which was a ship made to transport soldiers. The 1st Battalion of the 2nd Provisional Marine Regiment was in Havana, Cuba, but the rest were in Guantanamo. They protected American farms in Siboney and El Cobre.[2] After the rebellion stopped, they moved away.

    The first Regiments became the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade in June. They were led by Colonel Lincoln Karmany.[3]

    1st Marine Brigade[change | change source]

    The 1st Marine Brigade was a very different Brigade that was made in 1935, but people got confused about that because they also were in Cuba in 1940. It was first made in 1913 as a unit in the 1st Advance Force Brigade, but they weren't "Provisional",[4] but they were in Mexico and Puerto Rico and when it got disbanded people were confused still.[5]

    World War II[change | change source]

    Iceland[change | change source]

    During May of 1940, the United Kingdom invaded Iceland even if they were neutral.[6] They invaded because they were scared that Germany would attack Iceland. The Natives didn't like the British because of that, but they actually liked the Americans more. Iceland signed an agreement with the United States so that they were defended. As soon as it happened, the United States Marine Corps quickly reactivated the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade on July 14th, 1941.[7] The first people to join were taken from the 2nd Marine Division, and they were trained and organized in Camp Elliott in San Diego.[8]

    They had about 4,095 men.[9][10] They were some of the first men to enter Iceland under Major General Holland M. Smith. They stayed there for a bit with the 1st Marine Division, but the 1st MD was called to fight somewhere else, so the United States Army were the ones to come in after the 1st MD left the place to help the occupation. The 1st PMB also left with the 1st Marine Division.[11]

    Now under Brigadier General John Marston and Colonel Leo D. Hermle, the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade sailed from San Diego to Charleston in Attack Transports, USS Heywood, USS William P. Biddle, USS Fuller. [12] They also met other ships on the way that carried supplies for the 1st PMB.[13] Those ships were the USS Arkansas, USS New York, USS Brooklyn and USS Nashville.[14] They stopped at Newfoundland then continued to Iceland. They landed in Reykjavík on July 7th.[15] They helped the 49th Infantry Division, which was British.[16]

    The British commanders split the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade evenly around Reykjavík and places next to it.[9] They were made in to an emergency force in case if Germany invades.[17] The 49th ID gave their own patch to the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade also.[18] The 1st PMB were also with the United States Army and Army Air Corps.[19] They made a lot of forts to stop any German invasion for most of their time there.[20] On September 22nd, 1940, the British left Iceland and the United States Army was commanding the place.[21][9]

    During the Winter of 1941 and 1940, nothing happened and their progress became slow after they lost a lot of their supplies making forts[22] and doing combat drills for if the Germans attacked.[20] However, the Germans did not attack, and no planes were sent except for unarmed ones for reconnaissance.[23]

    After Pearl Harbor, the 1st Provisional Marine was moved away and sent to fight in the pacific.[24] They came back to New York in USS McCawley and SS Borinquen. A lot of the former marines in the 1st PMB joined the 2nd Marine Division to fight in the Guadalcanal Campaign.[25]

    Guam[change | change source]

    During April 18th of 1944, the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade was activated again but this time to fight in Guadalcanal.[26] They were a reserve force for a bit,[27] and they were commanded by Brigadier General Lemuel C. Shepherd.[28] In July, the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade went to the Marshall Islands for the Invasion of Guam. Guam was under the Empire of Japan.[29] They waited for a bit then they got about 9,886 men and had the 4th and 22nd Marine Regiment inside of them.[30] They joined the Third Amphibious Corps, which had almost 60,000 men and they would attack Guam,[31] the 305th Infantry Regiment also joined.[32]

    1st PMB leaders planning their attack.

    They were preparing in Eniwetok Atoll which is in the Marshall Islands.[28] At 08:32 AM on 21st July, the 22nd Marine Regiment landed in Bangi Point,[33] Hågat which was in the West. They started to fight some of the 22,000 Japanese men in the Island of Guam. Most of the fights were in West since it was where most of the Japanese were.[34] But the main 1st PMB didn't have much fighting. The Japanese had a lot of fortifications with Type 41 Mountain Guns and Bunkers, reconnaissance did not see them.[35]

    The Japanese used Type 41 Mountain Cannons that shoot 75mm against the 22nd Marine Regiment, they also used them against 20 amphibious vehicles to stop them from moving.[34] The 22nd Marine Regiment spent most of the day fighting the Japanese in Hågat. The 1st Battalion finally took Hågat while the 2nd Battalion took Mount Alifan.[36] Also the 1st Battalion, 4th Marines Regiment took over Bangi Point with help of the 3rd Battalion.[37] They both started to move forward to Mount Alifan but Japanese resistance in the island delayed them. The Japanese tried to make a big counter-offensive at night but failed.[38]

    By the end of the day, 4th and 22nd Regiments took places about 2,000 meters or 6,000 feet inside Guam.[37] The The 305th Regimental Combat Team helped the Marines for about 3 or 4 days before they regrouped with the 77th Infantry Division that was in the North.[38] The 1st Brigade, 3rd Marine Division was south and the 77th Infantry Division cut off and split the Orote Peninsula. By July 29th, they fully cleared the place and killed about 2,500 Japanese.[39] The 4th Marines were in the right of the West Flank while the 22nd Marine Regiment was on the left of the East Flanks, they quickly killed off the Japanese.[40]

    On August 6th, the Japanese made a last stand, meaning that they stayed in their positions and fought until they died. Mount Santa Rosa was cleared on August 8th and Ritidian Point and Pati Point on August 10th. BY 11:32 AM of August 10th, the Island was officially clear after 11,000 Japanese soldiers died. The 1st PMB was disbanded and the men there were moved to the 6th Marine Division.[41]

    After WWII[change | change source]

    After World War II, the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade became way smaller and had men, their name would change to 1st Provisional Artillery Battalion on 11th October, 1947. They used to be a Brigade, but became a Battalion, which has about 1,000 men and it became something called a "paper unit".[42] Some of the men that used to be in the Brigade became a part of the 1st Battalion, 11th Marines.[43][44]

    The Korean War[change | change source]

    Soldiers of the 1st PMB carrying a person who got shot in Korea.

    During the Korean War, the United States Marine Corps was becoming smaller and they weren't prepared for the Korean War. During 25 of June, 1950, the Joint Chiefs of Staff who are the people who lead the Military said to the Marines to get 15,000 man division to help the United Nations Command which was a coalition of countries fighting in the war.[45] The 1st Provisional Marine Brigade was the first unit to be sent to Korea, under General Edward A. Craig. [46]

    The United States Marine Corps prepared the 1st Marine Division to fight in the war and other units. On July 7th, the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade was reactivated in California to fight in the war. One week later, they came from San Diego to Pusan. Edward A. Craig was leading them and they got help from Marine Aircraft Group 33. They fought a lot in the south of Korea.[47]

    Task Force Kean[change | change source]

    The 1st Provisional Marine Brigade was sent to Masan immediately. They were sent to the westernmost flank of The Pusan Perimeter. The Eighth Army set the place up to resist the North Korean Army which was trying to overwhelm United Nation Forces. The 1st PMB joined the 5th Regimental Combat Team and 25th Infantry Division, they were under Major General William B. Kean. The three units banded together and made "Task Force Kean" and had about 20,000 men.[48][49]

    General Walker and the Eight Army were about to make a counter offensive, the first one by the United Nations. They were going to start by taking Chinju from the North Korean 6th Division. The attack the Geumgang River in the middle of the month.[50][51] One of Walker's goals was to stop North Koreans from grouping together next to Taegu. He wanted to do this by pushing some of the enemies south to keep them away. On August 6th, the Eighth Army was allowed to attack.[49] The plan was to move west near Masan and take The Chinju Pass. And also capture the Nam River,[52] but it depended on the arrival of the 2nd Infantry Divisions a few battalions of tanks.[53]

    Task Force Kean started on August 7th and left Masan.[54] The 1st Provisional Marine Brigade rushed Pansong and quickly made 350 casualties on the North Korean 6th Division since they rushed the 6th Division's headquarters.[55] But the other units in Task Force Kean were slowed down by North Korean resistance.[56] The Task Force attacked Jindong-myeon which made a weird battle where the 6th North Korean Division had to use air support and airdrops while Task Force Kean kept on meeting the 6th Division and fighting them often.[57]

    A lot of fighting happened in three days, by August 9th, Task Force Kean was sure that they could take Jinju-si.[58] Even if there was a lot of North Korean resistance, they were supported by airstrikes.[59] On August 10th, Task Force Kean was starting to advance and met the North Korean 83rd Motorized Regiment, 105th Armored Division. They were surprised and tried to retreat, but F4U Corsairs from the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing attacked them multiple times, 200 men were killed and over 100 vehicles were destroyed.[60][61]

    The 1st Provisional Marine Brigade couldn't go more and were redeployed somewhere else on August 12th,[57][62] but Task Force Kean kept on going and took Chondong-ni.[63] The 8th Army needed some help in Taegu, specifically in the Naktong Bulge.[62][64] By August 14th, Task Force Kean failed it's objective of spliting the North Koreans at the Chinju pass.[65][66] The North Korean 9th Division was almost gone, they had gone down to about 3000-4000 men. But the North Koreans drafted South Koreans from Andong.[67]

    First Naktong Bulge[change | change source]

    Map of Naktong

    In the First Naktong Bulge, the 1st PMB had to help stop a stalemate between the 24th Infantry Division and the North Korean 4th Infantry Division because the Americans kept shooting and made a stalemate.[68] They started at midnight of 6th August. The North Korean 4th Division was starting to move across the Naktong River at the Ohang ferry site. They used their heads and rafts to carry their weapons.[69][70] At 02:00 AM on August 6th, the 4th Divison started to fight the 3rd Battalion of the 34th Infantry Regiment. The 3rd Battalion had to retreat, and the North Koreans moved forward and tried to take down Yongsan.[68][71] They took a lot of weapons from the Americans because they surprised them.[64] The Americans thought that they would attack from the Far North.[72][73]

    A lot of American attacks made a stalemate.[74] In the morning of August 7th, the North Koreans were able to take over Cloverleaf Hill and Oblong-ni Ridge.[73] Bad terrain was around the place and it made a Bulge.[72] In 04:00 PM, the 9th Infantry Regiment of the 2nd Infantry Division were sent to the place. The 24th Infantry Division which was commanded by Major General John H. Church ordered the attack of the Naktong Bulge.[75] in the morning of August 7th, the North Koreans were able to take over Cloverleaf Hill and Oblong-ni Ridge.[76]

    The 4th Division of North Korea was making bridges that were underwater made of sandbags, trees and rocks.[73][77] It was strong enough to handle tanks and heavy things like Artillery.[78][77] By August 10th, two entire regiments went over the river and took positions.[79][72] The attack showed that the North Koreans can attack Yongsan which forced the United States to send reinforcements.[80] There were a lot of deaths there and then General Walker sent the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade to the Naktong,[57][81] They prepared to attack Cloverleaf Hill and Obong-ni, at 8:00 AM, August 17th,[82] the 1st PMB sent all their men to attack, they used M26 tanks, airstrikes and mortars to help them.[83][84]

    At first, the North Koreans stopped a lot of the attack, but then they got overwhelmed from heavy fire that was targeting them. The 1st PMB started to take one hill at a time.[84] The Marines took Obong-ni first then they destroyed a lot of enemies there with airstrikes. They destroyed all of the 18th Regiment.[85][86] The North Korean 4th Divisions tactics and strategies didn't work very well so they couldn't use them.[87]

    BY August 18th, the Americans took Obong-ni and Cloverleaf Hill, the North Korean 4th Division only had about 300 or 400 men left, they first had 7,00 men. The rest of them either surrendered or ran away because they didn't want to get captured.[88][89][86]

    Second Naktong Bulge[change | change source]

    In the Second Naktong Bulge, the 1st PMB only had 4,290 men, because about 500 men were killed in a month of the war.[90] They were getting ready to go to Pusan to escape to Japan, but they also joined other Marines in the 1st Marine Division that would attack Ichon.[91] They could not come because they were about to fight in Naktong. General Walker called them to help the 2nd Infantry Division in Naktong, but Mcarhut didn't like it because it would anger the East Command. They still fought. The attack was a threat to the supply line around the place.[75]

    The 2nd Division took the river line in Naktong,[92] and the 1st PMB rushed the river with everything they had. They planned their attack very well and won. After they helped the 2nd Infantry Division, they destroyed the North Korean army at the Naktong River and then left as soon as the battle ended.[93][94]

    Battle of Yongsan[change | change source]

    During a meeting between the 2nd Division, Eight Army and 1st Provisional Marine Brigade,[95] they all agreed to launch an attack at 08:00 AM on September 3rd at the Yongsan–Naktong River road. The Marines were going to attack south, while the Army would attack north.[96] Their goal was to get in contact with the 23rd Infantry Regiment, 2nd Engineer Combat Battalion, 1st Battalion, 9th Infantry, 25th Infantry Division, and 72nd Tank Battalion.[97]

    The 2nd Battalion, 5th Marines and 1st Battalion, 5th Marines came to Yongsan while the 1st PMB was moved to the front of Yongsan.[95][98] The 1st PMB was under control of the 2nd Division. In the night, A Company of the 2nd Engineers had a lot of fighting with the Korean People's Army and failed. At dawn of September 3rd, A Company gained the high ground and fought the entrenched Koreans.[98] The company leader was hit with a grenade and then injured from it. After some time, they took over the hill with help of tanks.[99]

    The Marines started an attack across some rice farms.[97] The 1st Battalion, 5th Marines attacked the southern east-west and took an objective after the North Koreans were attacked by airstrikes and crossed to where the 2nd Battalion was. Airstrikes, machine gun fire, artillery and the 1st Battalion started to shoot the North Korean reinforcements.[96] The 1st Battalion moved to another hill.[99]

    In the north, the 2nd Battalion took them longer. They started to get a lot of fire when they went up about 3.2 km.[96] The D Company, 2nd Battalion was isolated and some tanks were taking down North Korean T-34s.[99] The North Korean crewmen abandoned 1/5th of all their armored vehicles.[97] By the end of the day, the 2nd Battalion entrenched and lost 95 men. Most of them were from the D Company. [99]

    The 3rd Battalion, 5th Marines was allowed to pass the 2nd Battalion and continue fighting in the morning.[96] When the morning came, the North Koreans retreated and the 1st Battalion occupied some tents that looked like a command post. They quickly saw T-34 tanks that were abandoned and in good condition. At night, the North Koreans attacked the place and hit G Company hard.[100] When it started to rain they slowed down.[101] The North Koreans surrounded the G Company and some of them were starting to get into hand to hand combat. The 9th Infantry came in and helped the Marines.[102]

    On September 5th, a 10 minute long artillery preparations, the Americans started to move out even if it was a day of rain. They moved to Obong-ni Ridge and the 9th Infantry came close to Cloverleaf Hill that was recently captured in the First Battle of Naktong Bulge. They saw some North Koreans going up and then the marines split and took the pass between both hills.

    About 300 North Koreans came in from the village of Tugok and started to fight B Company. Some T-34s attacked by surprise and took out 2 M-26 Pershing Tanks. B Company had to retreat, but A and C Company fought the North Koreans with mortars. By the end of the day, there were 1,245 casualties and 106 of them were marines.[102] The number of North Korean deaths is unknown.[103]

    By September 4th, the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade was let go of the 2nd Division by General Walker. He thought that he had enough men to continue on with his mission.[104]

    Disbanding[change | change source]

    After the Battle of Yongsan, General Walker let go of the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade from control of the 2nd Division. On September 5th,[105] the 1st PMB started to leave Yongsan, and then they joined the 7th Marine Regiment and 1st Marine Regiment, 1st Marine Division[102] since the 1st MD was being reformed. MacArthur said that he could not fight in Inchon if there were no Marines,[104] so he sent some of them to the Army's 65th Infantry Regiment and 17th Infantry Regiment.[106][107]

    Structure & Organization[change | change source]

    Order of Battle for the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade during the Invasion of Guam

    The Brigade had different sizes every time it was reactivated, but usually there was a Headquarters and Service Company. They also had companies way smaller than normal Marine ones,[7] they would have a military police, and support companies.[108] There were also signal companies and platoons. During the Negro Rebellion, the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade had about 1,200 men that was in two separate regiments.

    When the 1st PMB went to Iceland they had more men, these were 1st, 2nd, and 3rd battalions from the 6th Marine Regiment, 2nd battalion the 10th Marine Regiment,[2] A company from the 2nd Tank Battalion, and A company from the 2nd Service Battalion, and the entire 5th Marine Defense Battalion.[109]

    But when they went to Guam they had a very big brigade of 9,886 men. It had the 4th Marine Regiment, 22nd Marine Regiment, military police, signals platoon and an Artillery Battalion, and also the 53rd Naval Construction Battalion was assigned.[110]

    In the Korean War, they had about 4,725 men that had the 5th Marine Regiment's 1st, 2nd and 3rd battalions, 1st Combat Engineer Battalion, 1st Medical Battalion, 1st Motor Transport Battalion, 1st Ordnance Battalion, 1st Service Battalion, 1st Shore Party Battalion, 1st Signal Battalion, 1st Tank Battalion, 1st Amphibian Tractor Company, and 1st Combat Service Group.[111] And they also had support from the Marine Aircraft Group 33.[58]

    Awards[change | change source]

    Even if the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade wasn't permanent, it still got rewards called "streamers" for its service in its battles and wars. These "streamers" or awards include:[112][113][114][115][116]

    Streamer Name Year
    U.S. Navy Presidential Unit Citation streamer.png Presidential Unit Citation Streamer 1950
    Streamer KPUC.PNG Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citation Streamer 1950
    Navy Unit Commendation streamer (USMC).svg Navy Unit Commendation 1944
    Streamer APC.PNG Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Streamer 1944
    Streamer WWII V.PNG World War II Victory Streamer 1945
    NDS 3B.PNG National Defense Service Streamer 1950
    Korean Service Medal - Streamer.png Korean Service Medal|Korean Service Streamer 1950

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