List of elements

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This page shows a list of all 118 chemical elements that have been identified.

Legend[change | edit source]

Categories and subcategories in the metal–nonmetal range

Metal Metalloid Nonmetal Unknown
chemical
properties
Alkali
metal
Alkaline
earth metal
Inner transition metal Transition
metal
Post-transition
metal
Other
nonmetal
Halogen Noble
gas
Lanthanide Actinide

List[change | edit source]

Z

Symbol

Element

Origin of name[1]
Group

Period

Weight
u ()
Density
g / cm3
Melt
K
Boil
K
Heat
J/g·K
Neg10 Abundance
mg / kg
−999  !a  !a −999 −999 −999 −999 −999 −999 −999 −999 −999
1 H Hydrogen the Greek 'hydro' and 'genes' meaning water-forming 1 1 1.008(1)2 3 4 9 0.00008988 14.01 20.28 14.304 2.20 1400
2 He Helium the Greek, 'helios' meaning sun 18 1 4.002602(2)2 4 0.0001785 0.956 4.22 5.193 0.008
3 Li Lithium the Greek 'lithos' meaning stone 1 2 6.94(1)2 3 4 5 9 0.534 453.69 1560 3.582 0.98 20
4 Be Beryllium the Greek name for beryl, 'beryllo' 2 2 9.012182(3) 1.85 1560 2742 1.825 1.57 2.8
5 B Boron the Arabic 'buraq', which was the name for borax 13 2 10.81(1)2 3 4 9 2.34 2349 4200 1.026 2.04 10
6 C Carbon the Latin 'carbo', meaning charcoal 14 2 12.011(1)2 4 9 2.267 3800 4300 0.709 2.55 200
7 N Nitrogen the Greek 'nitron' and 'genes' meaning nitre-forming 15 2 14.007(1)2 4 9 0.0012506 63.15 77.36 1.04 3.04 19
8 O Oxygen the Greek 'oxy' and 'genes' meaning acid-forming 16 2 15.999(1)2 4 9 0.001429 54.36 90.20 0.918 3.44 461000
9 F Fluorine the Latin 'fluere', meaning to flow 17 2 18.9984032(5) 0.001696 53.53 85.03 0.824 3.98 585
10 Ne Neon the Greek 'neos', meaning new 18 2 20.1797(6)2 3 0.0008999 24.56 27.07 1.03 0.005
11 Na Sodium the English word soda (natrium in Latin)[2] 1 3 22.98976928(2) 0.971 370.87 1156 1.228 0.93 23600
12 Mg Magnesium Magnesia, a region in Greece 2 3 24.3050(6) 1.738 923 1363 1.023 1.31 23300
13 Al Aluminium the Latin name for alum, 'alumen' meaning bitter salt 13 3 26.9815386(8) 2.698 933.47 2792 0.897 1.61 82300
14 Si Silicon the Latin 'silex' or 'silicis', meaning flint 14 3 28.085(1)4 9 2.3296 1687 3538 0.705 1.9 282000
15 P Phosphorus the Greek 'phosphoros', meaning bringer of light 15 3 30.973762(2) 1.82 317.30 550 0.769 2.19 1050
16 S Sulfur Either from the Sanskrit 'sulvere', or the Latin 'sulfurium', both names for sulfur[2] 16 3 32.06(1)2 4 9 2.067 388.36 717.87 0.71 2.58 350
17 Cl Chlorine the Greek 'chloros', meaning greenish yellow 17 3 35.45(1)2 3 4 9 0.003214 171.6 239.11 0.479 3.16 145
18 Ar Argon the Greek, 'argos', meaning idle 18 3 39.948(1)2 4 0.0017837 83.80 87.30 0.52 3.5
19 K Potassium the English word potash (kalium in Latin)[2] 1 4 39.0983(1) 0.862 336.53 1032 0.757 0.82 20900
20 Ca Calcium the Latin 'calx' meaning lime 2 4 40.078(4)2 1.54 1115 1757 0.647 1 41500
21 Sc Scandium Scandinavia (with the Latin name Scandia) 3 4 44.955912(6) 2.989 1814 3109 0.568 1.36 22
22 Ti Titanium Titans, the sons of the Earth goddess of Greek mythology 4 4 47.867(1) 4.54 1941 3560 0.523 1.54 5650
23 V Vanadium Vanadis, an old Norse name for the goddess Freyja 5 4 50.9415(1) 6.11 2183 3680 0.489 1.63 120
24 Cr Chromium the Greek 'chroma', meaning colour 6 4 51.9961(6) 7.15 2180 2944 0.449 1.66 102
25 Mn Manganese Either the Latin 'magnes', meaning magnet or from the black magnesium oxide, 'magnesia nigra' 7 4 54.938045(5) 7.44 1519 2334 0.479 1.55 950
26 Fe Iron the Anglo-Saxon name iren (ferrum in Latin) 8 4 55.845(2) 7.874 1811 3134 0.449 1.83 56300
27 Co Cobalt the German word 'kobald', meaning goblin 9 4 58.933195(5) 8.86 1768 3200 0.421 1.88 25
28 Ni Nickel the shortened of the German 'kupfernickel' meaning either devil's copper or St. Nicholas's copper 10 4 58.6934(4) 8.912 1728 3186 0.444 1.91 84
29 Cu Copper the Old English name coper in turn derived from the Latin 'Cyprium aes', meaning a metal from Cyprus 11 4 63.546(3)4 8.96 1357.77 2835 0.385 1.9 60
30 Zn Zinc the German, 'zinc', which may in turn be derived from the Persian word 'sing', meaning stone 12 4 65.38(2) 7.134 692.88 1180 0.388 1.65 70
31 Ga Gallium France (with the Latin name Gallia) 13 4 69.723(1) 5.907 302.9146 2477 0.371 1.81 19
32 Ge Germanium Germany (with the Latin name Germania) 14 4 72.63(1) 5.323 1211.40 3106 0.32 2.01 1.5
33 As Arsenic the Greek name 'arsenikon' for the yellow pigment orpiment 15 4 74.92160(2) 5.776 1090 7 887 0.329 2.18 1.8
34 Se Selenium Moon (with the Greek name selene) 16 4 78.96(3)4 4.809 453 958 0.321 2.55 0.05
35 Br Bromine the Greek 'bromos' meaning stench 17 4 79.904(1) 3.122 265.8 332.0 0.474 2.96 2.4
36 Kr Krypton the Greek 'kryptos', meaning hidden 18 4 83.798(2)2 3 0.003733 115.79 119.93 0.248 3 <0.001
37 Rb Rubidium the Latin 'rubidius', meaning deepest red 1 5 85.4678(3)2 1.532 312.46 961 0.363 0.82 90
38 Sr Strontium Strontian, a small town in Scotland 2 5 87.62(1)2 4 2.64 1050 1655 0.301 0.95 370
39 Y Yttrium Ytterby, Sweden 3 5 88.90585(2) 4.469 1799 3609 0.298 1.22 33
40 Zr Zirconium the Persian 'zargun', meaning gold coloured 4 5 91.224(2)2 6.506 2128 4682 0.278 1.33 165
41 Nb Niobium Niobe, daughter of king Tantalus from Greek mythology 5 5 92.90638(2) 8.57 2750 5017 0.265 1.6 20
42 Mo Molybdenum the Greek 'molybdos' meaning lead 6 5 95.96(2)2 10.22 2896 4912 0.251 2.16 1.2
43 Tc Technetium the Greek 'tekhnetos' meaning artificial 7 5 [98]1 11.5 2430 4538 1.9 <0.001
44 Ru Ruthenium Russia (with the Latin name Ruthenia) 8 5 101.07(2)2 12.37 2607 4423 0.238 2.2 0.001
45 Rh Rhodium the Greek 'rhodon', meaning rose coloured 9 5 102.90550(2) 12.41 2237 3968 0.243 2.28 0.001
46 Pd Palladium From the asteroid Pallas which had been recently discovered and named at the time. The asteroid was thought to be a planet when it was discovered 10 5 106.42(1)2 12.02 1828.05 3236 0.244 2.2 0.015
47 Ag Silver the Anglo-Saxon name siolfur (argentum in Latin)[2] 11 5 107.8682(2)2 10.501 1234.93 2435 0.235 1.93 0.075
48 Cd Cadmium the Latin name for the mineral calmine, 'cadmia' 12 5 112.411(8)2 8.69 594.22 1040 0.232 1.69 0.159
49 In Indium the Latin 'indicium', meaning violet or indigo 13 5 114.818(3) 7.31 429.75 2345 0.233 1.78 0.25
50 Sn Tin the Anglo-Saxon word tin (stannum in Latin, meaning hard) 14 5 118.710(7)2 7.287 505.08 2875 0.228 1.96 2.3
51 Sb Antimony the Greek 'anti – monos', meaning not alone (stibium in Latin) 15 5 121.760(1)2 6.685 903.78 1860 0.207 2.05 0.2
52 Te Tellurium Earth, the third planet on solar system (with the Latin word tellus) 16 5 127.60(3)2 6.232 722.66 1261 0.202 2.1 0.001
53 I Iodine the Greek 'iodes' meaning violet 17 5 126.90447(3) 4.93 386.85 457.4 0.214 2.66 0.45
54 Xe Xenon the Greek 'xenos' meaning stranger 18 5 131.293(6)2 3 0.005887 161.4 165.03 0.158 2.6 <0.001
55 Cs Caesium the Latin 'caesius', meaning sky blue 1 6 132.9054519(2) 1.873 301.59 944 0.242 0.79 3
56 Ba Barium the Greek 'barys', meaning heavy 2 6 137.327(7) 3.594 1000 2170 0.204 0.89 425
57 La Lanthanum the Greek 'lanthanein', meaning to lie hidden 6 138.90547(7)2 6.145 1193 3737 0.195 1.1 39
58 Ce Cerium Ceres, the Roman God of agriculture 6 140.116(1)2 6.77 1068 3716 0.192 1.12 66.5
59 Pr Praseodymium the Greek 'prasios didymos' meaning green twin 6 140.90765(2) 6.773 1208 3793 0.193 1.13 9.2
60 Nd Neodymium the Greek 'neos didymos' meaning new twin 6 144.242(3)2 7.007 1297 3347 0.19 1.14 41.5
61 Pm Promethium Prometheus of Greek mythology who stole fire from the Gods and gave it to humans 6 [145]1 7.26 1315 3273 <0.001
62 Sm Samarium Samarskite, the name of the mineral from which it was first isolated 6 150.36(2)2 7.52 1345 2067 0.197 1.17 7.05
63 Eu Europium Europe 6 151.964(1)2 5.243 1099 1802 0.182 1.2 2
64 Gd Gadolinium Johan Gadolin, chemist, physicist and mineralogist 6 157.25(3)2 7.895 1585 3546 0.236 1.2 6.2
65 Tb Terbium Ytterby, Sweden 6 158.92535(2) 8.229 1629 3503 0.182 1.2 1.2
66 Dy Dysprosium the Greek 'dysprositos', meaning hard to get 6 162.500(1)2 8.55 1680 2840 0.17 1.22 5.2
67 Ho Holmium Stockholm, Sweden (with the Latin name Holmia) 6 164.93032(2) 8.795 1734 2993 0.165 1.23 1.3
68 Er Erbium Ytterby, Sweden 6 167.259(3)2 9.066 1802 3141 0.168 1.24 3.5
69 Tm Thulium Thule, the ancient name for Scandinavia 6 168.93421(2) 9.321 1818 2223 0.16 1.25 0.52
70 Yb Ytterbium Ytterby, Sweden 6 173.054(5)2 6.965 1097 1469 0.155 1.1 3.2
71 Lu Lutetium Paris, France (with the Roman name Lutetia) 3 6 174.9668(1)2 9.84 1925 3675 0.154 1.27 0.8
72 Hf Hafnium Copenhagen, Denmark (with the Latin name Hafnia) 4 6 178.49(2) 13.31 2506 4876 0.144 1.3 3
73 Ta Tantalum King Tantalus, father of Niobe from Greek mythology 5 6 180.94788(2) 16.654 3290 5731 0.14 1.5 2
74 W Tungsten the Swedish 'tung sten' meaning heavy stone (W is wolfram, the old name of the tungsten mineral wolframite)[2] 6 6 183.84(1) 19.25 3695 5828 0.132 2.36 1.3
75 Re Rhenium Rhine River, in Europe (with the Latin name Rhenia) 7 6 186.207(1) 21.02 3459 5869 0.137 1.9 <0.001
76 Os Osmium the Greek 'osme', meaning smell 8 6 190.23(3)2 22.61 3306 5285 0.13 2.2 0.002
77 Ir Iridium Iris, the Greek goddess of the rainbow 9 6 192.217(3) 22.56 2719 4701 0.131 2.2 0.001
78 Pt Platinum the Spanish 'platina', meaning little silver 10 6 195.084(9) 21.46 2041.4 4098 0.133 2.28 0.005
79 Au Gold the Anglo-Saxon word gold (aurum in Latin, meaning glow of sunrise)[2] 11 6 196.966569(4) 19.282 1337.33 3129 0.129 2.54 0.004
80 Hg Mercury Mercury, the first planet in the Solar System (Hg from former name hydrargyrum, from Greek hydr- water and argyros silver) 12 6 200.59(2) 13.5336 234.43 629.88 0.14 2 0.085
81 Tl Thallium the Greek 'thallos', meaning a green twig 13 6 204.38(1)9 11.85 577 1746 0.129 1.62 0.85
82 Pb Lead the Anglo-Saxon lead (plumbum in Latin)[2] 14 6 207.2(1)2 4 11.342 600.61 2022 0.129 2.33 14
83 Bi Bismuth the German 'Bisemutum' a corruption of 'Weisse Masse' meaning white mass 15 6 208.98040(1)1 9.807 544.7 1837 0.122 2.02 0.009
84 Po Polonium Poland, the native country of Marie Curie, who first isolated the element 16 6 [209]1 9.32 527 1235 2 <0.001
85 At Astatine the Greek 'astatos', meaning unstable 17 6 [210]1 7 575 610 2.2 <0.001
86 Rn Radon From radium, as it was first detected as an emission from radium during radioactive decay 18 6 [222]1 0.00973 202 211.3 0.094 <0.001
87 Fr Francium France 1 7 [223]1 1.87 300 950 0.7 <0.001
88 Ra Radium the Latin 'radius', meaning ray 2 7 [226]1 5.5 973 2010 0.9 <0.001
89 Ac Actinium the Greek 'actinos', meaning a ray 7 [227]1 10.07 1323 3471 0.12 1.1 <0.001
90 Th Thorium Thor, the Scandinavian god of thunder 7 232.03806(2)1 2 11.72 2115 5061 0.113 1.3 9.6
91 Pa Protactinium the Greek 'protos', meaning first, as a prefix to the element actinium, which is produced through the radioactive decay of protactinium 7 231.03588(2)1 15.37 1841 4300 1.5 <0.001
92 U Uranium Uranus, the seventh planet in the Solar System 7 238.02891(3)1 18.95 1405.3 4404 0.116 1.38 2.7
93 Np Neptunium Neptune, the eighth planet in the Solar System 7 [237]1 20.45 917 4273 1.36 <0.001
94 Pu Plutonium Pluto, a dwarf planet in the Solar System 7 [244]1 19.84 912.5 3501 1.28 <0.001
95 Am Americium Americas, the continent where the element was first synthesized 7 [243]1 13.69 1449 2880 1.3 <0.001
96 Cm Curium Pierre Curie, a physicist, and Marie Curie, a physicist and chemist 7 [247]1 13.51 1613 3383 1.3 <0.001
97 Bk Berkelium Berkeley, California, USA, where the element was first synthesized 7 [247]1 14.79 1259 - 1.3 <0.001
98 Cf Californium California, USA, where the element was first synthesized 7 [251]1 15.1 1173 - 1.3 <0.001
99 Es Einsteinium Albert Einstein, physicist 7 [252]1 13.5 1133 1.3 0 8
100 Fm Fermium Enrico Fermi, physicist 7 [257]1 1800 1.3 0 8
101 Md Mendelevium Dmitri Mendeleyev, chemist and inventor 7 [258]1 1100 1.3 0 8
102 No Nobelium Alfred Nobel, chemist, engineer, innovator, and armaments manufacturer 7 [259]1 1100 1.3 0 8
103 Lr Lawrencium Ernest O. Lawrence, physicist 3 7 [262]1 1900 1.3 0 8
104 Rf Rutherfordium Ernest Rutherford, chemist and physicist 4 7 [267]1 0 8
105 Db Dubnium Dubna, Russia 5 7 [268]1 0 8
106 Sg Seaborgium Glenn T. Seaborg, scientist 6 7 [269]1 0 8
107 Bh Bohrium Niels Bohr, physicist 7 7 [270]1 0 8
108 Hs Hassium Hesse, Germany, where the element was first synthesized 8 7 [269]1 0 8
109 Mt Meitnerium Lise Meitner, physicist 9 7 [278]1 0 8
110 Ds Darmstadtium Darmstadt, Germany, where the element was first synthesized 10 7 [281]1 0 8
111 Rg Roentgenium Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, physicist 11 7 [281]1 0 8
112 Cn Copernicium Nicolaus Copernicus, astronomer 12 7 [285]1 0 8
113 Uut Ununtrium IUPAC systematic element name 13 7 [286]1 0 8
114 Fl Flerovium Georgy Flyorov, physicist 14 7 [289]1 0 8
115 Uup Ununpentium IUPAC systematic element name 15 7 [288]1 0 8
116 Lv Livermorium Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in Livermore, California, U.S. 16 7 [293]1 0 8
117 Uus Ununseptium IUPAC systematic element name 17 7 [294]1 0 8
118 Uuo Ununoctium IUPAC systematic element name 18 7 [294]1 0 8
9e99 ~z ~z 9e99 9e99 9e99 9e99 9e99 9e99 9e99 9e99 9e99

Notes[change | edit source]

  • ^1  The element does not have any stable nuclides, and a value in brackets, e.g. [209], indicates the mass number of the longest-lived isotope of the element. However, three elements, Thorium, Protactinium, and Uranium, have a characteristic terrestrial isotopic composition, and thus their atomic mass given.
  • ^2  The isotopic composition of this element varies in some geological specimens, and the variation may exceed the uncertainty stated in the table.
  • ^3  The isotopic composition of the element can vary in commercial materials, which can cause the atomic weight to deviate significantly from the given value.
  • ^4  The isotopic composition varies in terrestrial material such that a more precise atomic weight can not be given.
  • ^5  The atomic weight of commercial Lithium can vary between 6.939 and 6.996–analysis of the specific material is necessary to find a more accurate value.
  • ^6  This element does not solidify at a pressure of one atmosphere. The value listed above, 0.95 K, is the temperature at which helium does solidify at a pressure of 25 atmospheres.
  • ^7  This element sublimes at one atmosphere of pressure
  • ^8  The transuranic elements 99 and above do not occur naturally, but some of them can be produced artificially.
  • ^9  The value listed is the conventional value suitable for trade and commerce. The actual value may differ depending on the isotopic composition of the sample. Analysis of the specific material is necessary to find a more accurate value.
  • ^10  Electronegativity on the Pauling scale. Standard symbol: χ

References[change | edit source]