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Classification and external resources

Swelling of the face such that the boy is unable to open his eyes. This reaction was due to an allergen exposure.
ICD-10 T78.2
ICD-9 995.0
DiseasesDB 29153
MedlinePlus 000844
eMedicine med/128
MeSH D000707

Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction. It begins suddenly and may cause death.[1] Anaphylaxis has many symptoms, such as an itchy rash, throat swelling, breathing problems, and low blood pressure. Common causes include insect bites, foods, and medications.

Anaphylaxis happens when a person eats, breathes in, or is injected with an allergen (something they are allergic to). Their immune system over-reacts. It sends out special proteins from inside certain white blood cells. These proteins can start an allergic reaction or make the reaction worse.

Anaphylaxis is diagnosed from a person’s signs and symptoms. The best treatment is an injection (a shot) of epinephrine (adrenaline). Sometimes doctors give other medicines along with epinephrine.

Worldwide, about 0.05–2% of people have anaphylaxis at some point in their lives. Anaphylaxis appears to be getting more common.

History[change | change source]

Cases of anaphylaxis have been reported since ancient times.[2]

The condition was originally named "aphylaxis" by Charles Richet in 1902. In 1913, Richet was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology for his work on anaphylaxis.[3]

Later, the name was changed to "anaphylaxis" because it sounded nicer.[4] The word "anaphylaxis" comes from the Greek words ἀνά (ana), against, and φύλαξις (phyla's), protection.

Signs and symptoms[change | change source]

Signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis.

Anaphylaxis can cause many different signs and symptoms over minutes or hours.[5] If the anaphylaxis is caused by something that entered the body directly through the bloodstream (through a vein), symptoms appear within an average of 5 to 30 minutes. If it is caused by a food the person ate, symptoms appear within an average of 2 hours.[3]

The most common body systems affected by anaphylaxis include:

People with anaphylaxis usually have problems with two or more of these body systems.

Skin symptoms[change | change source]

Hives and flushing on the back of a person with anaphylaxis

Skin symptoms usually include:

In 20% of cases, the tongue or throat may swell up, which can cause breathing problems.[8] If a person is having breathing problems, the skin may turn blue because the body is not getting enough oxygen. This is called cyanosis.[7]

Respiratory (breathing) symptoms[change | change source]

Respiratory signs and symptoms include:

Cardiovascular symptoms[change | change source]

When a person has anaphylaxis, some of the cells in the heart may release histamine. This can cause the heart’s blood vessels to get narrower suddenly (this is called "coronary artery spasm").[9] If the heart's blood vessels get too narrow, the heart cannot get enough blood. This can cause many serious problems:[10][11]

Anaphylaxis can also cause low blood pressure. This may be caused by distributive shock, where the body's blood vessels get much wider because of the chemicals released by the immune system. It can also be caused by cardiogenic shock, where the heart is not getting enough blood to pump out to the rest of the body.[9]

Low blood pressure can cause many problems, including:

In rare cases, very low blood pressure may be the only sign of anaphylaxis.[8]

People who already have heart disease are at greater risk of having heart problems from anaphylaxis.[9]

Other symptoms[change | change source]

Anaphylaxis can also cause problems with other body systems:

Causes[change | change source]

Anaphylaxis can be caused by the body’s response to almost any foreign substance (anything that is outside the body).[4] Common causes include venom from insect bites or stings; foods; and medications.[12][13][13] In children and young adults, foods are the most common trigger (or cause) of anaphylaxis. In older adults, medications and insect bites or stings are more common triggers.[11]

Food[change | change source]

Many foods can trigger anaphylaxis, even when the food is eaten for the first time. In the Western world, the most common causes are eating or touching peanuts, wheat, tree nuts, shellfish, milk, and eggs. In the Middle East, sesame is a common trigger food. In Asia, rice and chickpeas often cause anaphylaxis.

Severe cases of anaphylaxis usually happen when a person eats the trigger food. However, some people have severe anaphylaxis when the trigger food touches some part of their body.

Children can outgrow their allergies. For example, by age 16:[4]

  • 80% of children with anaphylaxis to milk or eggs can eat these foods with no problems
  • 20% of children who had only one case of anaphylaxis to peanuts can eat peanuts with no problems

Medication[change | change source]

Any medication may cause anaphylaxis. The most common are β-lactam antibiotics (such as penicillin), then aspirin and NSAIDs.[14]

Venom[change | change source]

Venom from stinging or biting insects, like bees and wasps (Hymenoptera) or kissing bugs (Triatominae), may cause anaphylaxis.[10][15] If a person has a bad allergic reaction to venom once, they have a greater risk of having anaphylaxis if they are stung or bitten again.[16][17] However, half of the people who die of anaphylaxis have had no anaphylactic reaction before.[18]

Risk factors[change | change source]

Certain diseases, called atopic diseases, can make a person more likely to have allergies. Atopic diseases include asthma, eczema, and allergic rhinitis. People with these diseases have a high risk of anaphylaxis from food, latex, and radiocontrast agents. However, these people do not have a higher risk from injected medications or stings.

One study of children with anaphylaxis found that 60% had a history of previous atopic diseases. More than 90% of children who die from anaphylaxis have asthma.

The risk of having another anaphylactic reaction decreases as a person avoids the trigger for longer and longer.[3]

How anaphylaxis happens[change | change source]

Anaphylaxis usually happens because the immune system over-reacts to an allergen. The immune system releases mast cells and basophils, which are types of white blood cells. The immune system sees the trigger as something bad and sends out white blood cells to kill it. The mast cells and basophils attach to the allergen to try to kill it. However, because the system is over-reacting, the mast cells and basophils explode and dump out chemicals that cause inflammation, like histamine. Histamine causes many of the symptoms of anaphylaxis. For example:[3][19]

  • Bronchoconstriction (where the tubes that carry air to the lungs get narrower)
  • Vasodilation (where the blood vessels get wider)
  • Fluid leaks out of blood vessels
  • The heart muscle does not work as well

Diagnosis[change | change source]

Anaphylaxis is diagnosed based on signs, symptoms, and knowing that a person has been exposed to an allergen. It is very likely that a person has anaphylaxis if any of these three things happen within minutes or hours after they were exposed to an allergen:

  1. Problems with the skin or mucosal tissue, plus either breathing problems or a low blood pressure
  2. Two or more of these symptoms:
    1. Problems with the skin or mucosa
    2. Breathing problems
    3. Low blood pressure
    4. Gastrointestinal symptoms
  3. Low blood pressure after exposure to an allergen

If a person has a bad reaction to an insect sting or a medication, blood tests for tryptase or histamine might be useful in diagnosing anaphylaxis. However, these tests are not very useful if the cause is food, or if the person has a normal blood pressure.[11] Also, these tests cannot say for sure that a person does not have anaphylaxis.[4]

Allergy testing[change | change source]

Skin allergy testing being carried out on the right arm

Allergy testing may help to identify what caused a person’s anaphylaxis. Skin allergy tests (such as patch tests) can be done for certain foods and venoms.[4] Skin tests can diagnose an allergy to penicillin, but there are no skin tests for other medications.[4] Blood tests can diagnose milk, egg, peanut, tree nut and fish allergies.[4]

Differential diagnosis[change | change source]

Sometimes it is difficult to tell the difference between anaphylaxis; asthma; fainting caused by not having enough oxygen; and panic attacks. However, there are some important differences between these conditions:

  • People with asthma usually do not have itching, swelling, or problems with their stomach or intestines.
  • After fainting, a person's skin is pale, and they will not have a rash or swelling. Their breath sounds will be normal.
  • A person who is having a panic attack may have flushed skin, but will not have hives or swelling. Usually their blood pressure will not be low. Their breath sounds will be normal.

Prevention[change | change source]

The best way to prevent anaphylaxis is to avoid the trigger that caused anaphylaxis in the past. When this is not possible, there may be treatments to make the body stop reacting to the trigger. This is called desensitization. For example, treatment of the immune system (immunotherapy) with Hymenoptera venoms is able to make 80–90% of adults and 98% of children stop having allergic reactions to bees, wasps, hornets, yellow jackets, and fire ants. Most people who are allergic to certain medicines can just avoid those medicines. However, desensitization is possible for many medications (for example, many chemotherapies) if the person has to take those medicines.

People with latex allergies may have to avoid "cross-reactive foods." These are foods that have ingredients that are similar to latex. Examples of these foods includeavocados, bananas, and potatoes.[11]

Management[change | change source]

Anaphylaxis is a medical emergency that may require emergency medical treatment. Some patients need help keeping their airways open so they can breathe in air. Other patients need to be given extra oxygen or large amounts of intravenous fluids (fluids given through a needle into a vein).[10]

Epinephrine is the best treatment for anaphylaxis. Doctors often give antihistamines (which destroy histamine) and steroids along with epinephrine.[11] Once a person has returned to normal, they should be watched in the hospital for 2 to 24 hours to make sure their symptoms do not return.[3][12][20][21]

Epinephrine[change | change source]

An old version of an EpiPen auto-injector

Epinephrine is the best and first treatment used for anaphylaxis. It reverses many of the symptoms of anaphylaxis. For example, it makes the bronchi (the passages to the lungs) get wider; it makes the blood vessels go back to their normal size; and it raises blood pressure.

Epinephrine comes in an "auto-injector," usually called an "EpiPen." Once its safety cap is taken off, the EpiPen just has to be pressed into the thigh, and the right amount of epinephrine will automatically be injected into the person's body. Doctors can prescribe EpiPens to people who know they have allergies, so they can treat themselves for anaphylaxis. Many ambulances also carry EpiPens to treat anaphylaxis.

The EpiPen is meant to be injected into the thigh muscle, on the outside of the leg, as soon as anaphylaxis is suspected.[11] There is no reason why it should not be used if a person is having an anaphylactic reaction.[10] The injection may be repeated every 5 to 15 minutes if the person is still having breathing problems or other major symptoms.[11] A second dose is needed in 16 to 35% of cases.[12] More than two doses are rarely needed.[11]

Epinephrine can cause minor side effects, including tremors, anxiety, headaches, and palpitations.[11]

Epinephrine may not work in people who are taking β-blockers.[12] In these people, if epinephrine does not work, doctors can give intravenous glucagon.[12]

Being prepared[change | change source]

People who are at risk for anaphylaxis are advised to have an "allergy action plan." These plans often include:[22]

  • Parents telling schools about their children's allergies and what to do in case of an anaphylactic emergency
  • Knowing how and when to use EpiPens
  • Wearing a medical alert bracelet that says what the person is allergic to
  • Planning for how to avoid triggers

Outlook[change | change source]

If anaphylaxis is diagnosed and the person is treated quickly, there is a good chance that they will recover.[23] Even if nobody knows what caused the anaphylaxis, the person usually makes a good recovery as long as they get medication to stop the reaction.[3]

When people die from anaphylaxis, they usually die from respiratory (breathing) problems, usually the airway closing up, or cardiovascular problems, like shock.[12][19] About 0.7% to 20% of people with anaphylaxis die from it.[3][9] Some people die within minutes.[11]

Very rarely, people have exercise-induced anaphylaxis - anaphylaxis that is caused by exercise. These people usually do well. They usually have fewer anaphylactic episodes, which are less severe, as they get older.[24]

References[change | change source]

  1. Tintinalli, Judith E. 2010. Emergency medicine: a comprehensive study guide. New York: McGraw-Hill, 177–182. ISBN 0-07-148480-9
  2. Ring, J; Behrendt, H, de Weck, A (2010). "History and classification of anaphylaxis.". Chemical immunology and allergy 95: 1–11. PMID 20519878.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 Marx, John (2010). Rosen's emergency medicine: concepts and clinical practice 7th edition. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby/Elsevier. p. 15111528. ISBN 9780323054720.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 Boden, SR; Wesley Burks, A (2011 Jul). "Anaphylaxis: a history with emphasis on food allergy.". Immunological reviews 242 (1): 247–57. PMID 21682750.
  5. Oswalt M.L. & Kemp S.F. (May 2007). "Anaphylaxis: office management and prevention". Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 27 (2): 177–91, vi. doi:10.1016/j.iac.2007.03.004. PMID 17493497. "Clinically, anaphylaxis is considered likely to be present if any one of three criteria is satisfied within minutes to hours".
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 Sampson HA, Muñoz-Furlong A, Campbell RL, et al. (February 2006). "Second symposium on the definition and management of anaphylaxis: summary report—Second National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease/Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network symposium". J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 117 (2): 391–7. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2005.12.1303. PMID 16461139.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 Brown, SG; Mullins, RJ, Gold, MS (2006 Sep 4). "Anaphylaxis: diagnosis and management.". The Medical journal of Australia 185 (5): 283–9. PMID 16948628.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Limsuwan T; Demoly P 2010. Acute symptoms of drug hypersensitivity (urticaria, angioedema, anaphylaxis, anaphylactic shock)." The Medical clinics of North America 94 (4): 691–710, x. [1]
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 Triggiani, M; Patella, V, Staiano, RI, Granata, F, Marone, G (2008 Sep). "Allergy and the cardiovascular system.". Clinical and experimental immunology 153 Suppl 1: 7–11. PMC 2515352. PMID 18721322.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 Simons F.E. 2009. Anaphylaxis: recent advances in assessment and treatment. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 124 (4): 625–36; quiz 637–8.
  11. 11.00 11.01 11.02 11.03 11.04 11.05 11.06 11.07 11.08 11.09 11.10 Simons F.E. 2010. World Allergy Organization survey on global availability of essentials for the assessment and management of anaphylaxis by allergy-immunology specialists in health care settings". Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology 104 (5): 405–12. [2]
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 Lee J.K. & Vadas. P. 2011. Anaphylaxis: mechanisms and management". Clinical and experimental allergy. 41 (7): 923–38.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Worm, M (2010). "Epidemiology of anaphylaxis.". Chemical immunology and allergy 95: 12–21. PMID 20519879.
  14. Volcheck, Gerald W. (2009). Clinical allergy : diagnosis and management. Totowa, N.J.: Humana Press. pp. 442. ISBN 9781588296160.
  15. Klotz, J.H. et al (2010 Jun 15). ""Kissing bugs": potential disease vectors and cause of anaphylaxis.". Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 50 (12): 1629–34. PMID 20462351.
  16. Bilò, MB (2011 Jul). "Anaphylaxis caused by Hymenoptera stings: from epidemiology to treatment.". Allergy 66 Suppl 95: 35–7. PMID 21668850.
  17. Cox, L. et al (2010 Mar). "Speaking the same language: The World Allergy Organization Subcutaneous Immunotherapy Systemic Reaction Grading System.". The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 125 (3): 569–74, 574.e1-574.e7. PMID 20144472.
  18. Bilò, BM; Bonifazi, F (2008 Aug). "Epidemiology of insect-venom anaphylaxis.". Current opinion in allergy and clinical immunology 8 (4): 330–7. PMID 18596590.
  19. 19.0 19.1 Khan, BQ; Kemp, SF (2011 Aug). "Pathophysiology of anaphylaxis.". Current opinion in allergy and clinical immunology 11 (4): 319–25. PMID 21659865.
  20. Lieberman P 2005. Biphasic anaphylactic reactions. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 95 (3): 217–26; quiz 226, 258. [3]
  21. "Emergency treatment of anaphylactic reactions – Guidelines for healthcare providers" (PDF). Resuscitation Council (UK). January 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-22.
  22. Martelli, A; Ghiglioni D. et al (2008 Aug). "Anaphylaxis in the emergency department: a paediatric perspective.". Current opinion in allergy and clinical immunology 8 (4): 321–9. PMID 18596589.
  23. Harris, edited by Jeffrey; Weisman, Micheal S. (2007). Head and neck manifestations of systemic disease. London: Informa Healthcare. pp. 325. ISBN 9780849340505.
  24. Demain JG; Minaei AA, Tracy JM 2010. Anaphylaxis and insect allergy. Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology 10 (4): 318–22.