||The English used in this article or section may not be easy for everybody to understand. (December 2011)|
Child pornography is material showing children in erotic poses or having sex. It is usually graphic material in the form of drawings, photographs or video, but can be in writing as well. Child pornography that involves real children is a record of child sexual abuse. Child pornography is illegal in most countries in the world; punishments for crimes involving child pornography are different by country, but usually include time in prison.
Child sexual abuse happens in different ways in the making of child pornography, with the most critical way being the actual molestation. Another way is that, when the act is captured with a camera it makes the abuse worse for the child, just knowing that the event is being recorded for possible future abuse – including extortion (blackmailing) and sharing, out of the victim's control. Linked to that is many of the reasons to why that recording is then – in itself – seen as abuse. One important part of those reasons, is that the recording makes the abuse possible to go on even longer than the direct damage upon the child, and with the Internet it may very well be seen as permanent. This makes the impact on the child even larger, not knowing – but surely worrying about – how the images might be used.
In both common usage[source?] and for the purpose of research (looking up information), the word "child" in the phrase "child pornography" refers to children before they reach puberty, and does not refer to post-puberty teenagers. For practical reasons, the way the law describes child pornography generally refer to a wider age range, including any pornography involving a minor, according to where the law applies. Most people who own child pornography who are arrested are found to own images of children who have not started puberty; owners of pornographic images of post-puberty minors are less likely to be prosecuted, even though those images also fall within the laws.
Child pornography is a multibillion-dollar industry and among the fastest growing crime activities on the Internet, according to the US The National Center for Missing and Exploited Children (NCMEC), the International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children (ICMEC) and other international sources. According to the NCMEC, almost one fifth of all Internet pornography is child pornography. New technology such as inexpensive digital cameras and sending across the internet, such as file sharing, has made it easier than ever before to produce and pass out child pornography. The people who make child pornography try to avoid prosecution by sending their material across borders with other countries, though this issue is being dealt with more and more with regular arrests of suspects from a number of countries happening over the last few years.
Child pornography is looked at and collected by pedophiles for a number of purposes, ranging from private sexual uses, exchanging with other pedophiles, preparing children for sexual abuse as part of the process known as "grooming", or for bribing victims into making more child pornography or going into child prostitution.
References[change | change source]
- Finkelhor, David. "Current Information on the Scope and Nature of Child Sexual Abuse.". Future of Children v4 n2 (Sum-Fall 1994): pp. 31–53. http://eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ497143&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ497143.
- Hobbs, Christopher James; Helga G. I. Hanks, Jane M. Wynne (1999). Child Abuse and Neglect: A Clinician's Handbook. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 328. ISBN 0443058962. ""Child pornography is part of the violent continuum of child sexual abuse""
- Claire Milner, Ian O'Donnel. (2007). Child Pornography: Crime, computers and society. Willan Publishing. p. 123.
- Sheldon, Kerry; Dennis Howitt (2007). Sex Offenders and the Internet. John Wiley and Sons. pp. p9. ISBN 0470028009. "... supplying the material to meet this demand results in the further abuse of children. Pictures, films and videos function as a permanent record of the original sexual abuse. Consequently, memories of the trauma and abuse are maintained as long as the record exists. Victims filmed and photographed many years ago will nevertheless be aware throughout their lifetimes that their childhood victimization continues to be exploited perversely."
- Sheldon, Kerry; Dennis Howitt (2007). Sex Offenders and the Internet. John Wiley and Sons. p. 20. ISBN 0470028009. "'Child pornography is not pornography in any real sense; simply the evidence recorded on film or video tape - of serious sexual assaults on young children' (Tate, 1992, p.203) ... 'Every piece of child pornography, therefore, is a record of the sexual use/abuse of the children involved.' Kelly and Scott (1993, p. 116) '... the record of the systematic rape, abuse, and torture of children on film and photograph, and other electronic means.' Edwards(2000, p.1)"
- Klain, Eva J.; Heather J. Davies, Molly A. Hicks, ABA Center on Children and the Law (2001). Child Pornography: The Criminal-justice-system Response. National Center for Missing & Exploited Children. "Because the children depicted in child pornography are often shown while engaged in sexual activity with adults or other children,they are first and foremost victims of child sexual abuse."
- Wortley, Richard; Stephen Smallbone. "Child Pornography on the Internet". Problem-Oriented Guides for Police No. 41: p17. "The children portrayed in child pornography are first victimized when their abuse is perpetrated and recorded. They are further victimized each time that record is accessed.".
- Agnes Fournier de Saint Maur (January 1999). "Sexual Abuse of Children on the Internet: A New Challenge for INTERPOL". Expert Meeting on Sexual Abuse of Children, Child Pornography and Paedophilia on the lnternet: an international challenge. UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization). http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0011/001147/114734eo.pdf.
- Wells, M.; Finkelhor, D.; Wolak, J.; Mitchell, K. (2007). "Defining Child Pornography: Law Enforcement Dilemmas in Investigations of Internet Child Pornography Possession". Police Practice and Research 8 (3): 269–282. doi:10.1080/15614260701450765. http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/pdf/CV96.pdf. Retrieved 2008-07-01.
- "Child Porn among Fastest Growing Internet Businesses". National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, US. 2005-08-05. http://www.ncmec.org/missingkids/servlet/NewsEventServlet?LanguageCountry=en_US&PageId=2064. Retrieved 2008-03-13.
- J. Nicholas Hoover (2006-03-17). "As Child Porn Industry Grows, Coalition Launches Counterattack". Information Week. http://www.informationweek.com/news/security/cybercrime/showArticle.jhtml;jsessionid=O1ALG302BNO2IQSNDLOSKH0CJUNN2JVN?articleID=183700580&_requestid=16251.
- C R Jayachandran (2003-09-26). "World wide porn: 260 mn, growing". Times of India (Bennett Coleman & Co. Ltd). http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/203486.cms.
- Levesque, Roger J. R. (1999). Sexual Abuse of Children: A Human Rights Perspective. Indiana University. p. 65. ISBN 0253334713.
- Ferraro, Monique Mattei; Monique Ferraro, Eoghan Casey, Michael McGrath (2004). Investigating Child Exploitation and Pornography: The Internet, the Law and Forensic Science. Academic Press. p. 3. ISBN 0121631052.
- Scherer, Jacqueline; Gary Shepherd (1982). Victimization of the Weak: Contemporary Social Reactions. Charles C Thomas Pub Ltd. p. 108. ISBN 0398040435.
- DeLisi, Matt; Peter John Conis (2007). Violent Offenders: Theory, Research, Public Policy, and Practice. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. p. 264. ISBN 076375479X.
- Crosson-Tower, Cynthia (2005). UNDERSTANDING CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT. Allyn & Bacon. p. 208. ISBN 020540183X.
- Richard Wortley, Stephen Smallbone. "Child Pornography on the Internet". Problem-Oriented Guides for Police No. 41: pp. 14–16.
- Levesque, Roger J. R. (1999). Sexual Abuse of Children: A Human Rights Perspective. Indiana University. p. 64. ISBN 0253334713.