The breast is an organ on the lower chest region of humans and other primates. Humans have two breasts. Both boys and girls have breasts at birth, but during puberty, the breasts on women become larger and more visible. The breasts have mammary glands that produce milk. Breastfeeding is letting an infant drink breast milk.
Men also have breasts. They are built the same way as those of women, but are much smaller and underdeveloped. Men cannot use their breast for breastfeeding. Their breasts will usually not produce milk, but might become larger and produce milk during some diseases or with some hormonal medical treatments.
Growth and form[change | change source]
Estrogen promotes the growth of mammary glands and ducts, while progesterone induces milk-producing cells to develop. Prolactin and oxytocin stimulate milk production. Oxytocin also causes milk to be spurted from a lactating breast.
The two breasts usually are not equal in size — one may be larger than the other, but this is common.
During menopause, as levels of estrogen decrease, tissue in the breasts reduce as well, and the breasts may start sagging. A study showed that breastfeeding does not cause sagging. Factors that do influence sagging are the size of the breast (before the first pregnancy), number of pregnancies, body mass index, smoking, and age.
Structure[change | change source]
The center of the breast is the nipple. The areola is a circular area around the nipple. The breast contains mammary glands. Each breast has 15 to 20 milk ducts. Ducts carry the milk produced by these glands to the nipples. After a woman has a baby, her breasts undergo lactation — the production of natural milk.
Purposes[change | change source]
The breasts of a woman also play a role in human sexual behavior. They are one of the most visible or obvious female secondary sex characteristics. They play an important role in sexual attraction of partners. They can also give pleasure to the individual. When sexually stimulated, the size of the breasts increases, venous patterns across the breasts become more visible, and nipples grow harder. During sexual intercourse, it is common practice to press or massage breasts with hands. Breasts are sensitive to touch as they have many nerve endings. Oral stimulation of nipples and breasts is also common. Some women can achieve "breast orgasms". In the ancient Indian work the Kama Sutra, marking breasts with nails and biting with teeth are explained as erotic.
Related pages[change | change source]
Gallery[change | change source]
A bare-breasted Himba woman at northern Namibia. This is common in her culture.
Femen member participating in a protest
References[change | change source]
- Introduction to the Human Body, fifth ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: New York, 2001. 560.
- "Size and Shape". afraidtoask.com. Retrieved 30 July 2010.
- "Normal Breast Development". The Ohio State University Medical Center. Retrieved 30 July 2010.
- Perez, Jane. "Breast Anatomy & Physiology — Lactation". Herballove.com. Retrieved 30 July 2010.[permanent dead link]
- Jelovsek, Frederick R. "Breast Asymmetry - When Does It Need Treatment?". wdxcyber.com. Retrieved 30 July 2010.
- "Breastfeeding Does Not Create Sagging Breasts; Study Throws Out Old Wives' Tale". Archived from the original on 30 July 2010.
- "Sajadi-Ernazarova KR, Adigun R. Breast, Nipple Discharge". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. 16 October 2017; This work is distributed with https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ (CC BY 4.0)
- "Breast Anatomy". Healthcommunities.com. Archived from the original on 29 March 2010. Retrieved 30 July 2010.
- "secondary sex characteristics". Archived from the original on 2013-05-16. Retrieved 2008-03-06.
- "The entire breast is a network of nerve endings" link Archived 2009-03-03 at the Wayback Machine
- Sir Richard Burton's English translation of Kama Sutra
Bibliography[change | change source]
- Hollander, Anne (1993). Seeing through clothes. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-08231-1.
- Morris, Desmond The Naked Ape: a zoologist's study of the human animal Bantam Books, Canada. 1967
- Yalom, Marilyn (1998). A history of the breast. London: Pandora. ISBN 978-0-86358-400-8.
- Venes, Donald (2013). Taber's cyclopedic medical dictionary. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis. ISBN 978-0-8036-2977-6.
- Lawrence, Ruth (2016). Breastfeeding : a guide for the medical profession, 8th edition. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-323-35776-0.
Other websites[change | change source]
|The Simple English Wiktionary has a definition for: breasts.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Breasts.|
|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Breast|
|The English Wikibooks has more information on:|
|Wikisource has original writing related to this article:|
- "Are Women Evolutionary Sex Objects?: Why Women Have Breasts". Archived from the original on 2 December 2011.