The Enneagram of Personality is a typing system of nine connected types of personalities.
Today, Enneagram theories are mostly from Oscar Ichazo from the 1950s and Claudio Naranjo from the 1970s. Older history of ideas associated with the Enneagram of Personality are not agreed on.
The Enneagram of Personality is popular in business management and spirituality development using books and DVDs. In business it is used to find out into how employees can work together. In spirituality it is shown as a path to self-improvement and enlightenment. Both say it can aid in self-awareness and self-understanding.
The Nine Types[change | change source]
|Type||Characteristic role||Basic fear||Basic desire||Temptation||Vice||Virtue||Stress||Security|
|1||Perfectionist||Corruptness, imbalance, being bad||Goodness, integrity, balance||Hypocrisy, hypercriticism||Anger||Serenity||4||7|
|2||Helper||Being unloved||To feel love||Deny own needs, manipulation||Pride||Humility||8||4|
|3||Performer||Worthlessness||To feel valuable||Pushing self to always be "the best"||Deceit||Truthfulness, Authenticity||9||6|
|4||Individualist||Having no identity or significance||To be uniquely themselves||To overuse imagination in search of self||Envy||Equanimity (Emotional Balance)||2||1|
|5||Researcher||Helplessness, incapability, incompetence||Mastery, understanding||Replacing direct experience with concepts||Avarice||Non-Attachment||7||8|
|6||Skeptic||Being without support or guidance||To have support and guidance||Indecision, doubt, seeking reassurance||Fear||Courage||3||9|
|7||Enthusiast||Being unfulfilled, trapped, deprived||To be satisfied and content||Thinking fulfillment is somewhere else||Gluttony||Sobriety||1||5|
|8||Protector||Being controlled, harmed, violated||Self-protection||Thinking they are completely self-sufficient||Lust (Forcefulness)||Innocence||5||2|
|9||Peacemaker||Loss, fragmentation, separation||Wholeness, peace of mind||Avoiding conflicts, avoiding self-assertion||Sloth (Disengagement)||Action||6||3|
Criticism[change | change source]
The Enneagram mixes ideas usually accepted in the theory of personality but it has been sent away and called pseudoscience by some personality assessment experts. The Enneagram is criticised for having no basis in scientific fact.
References[change | change source]
- Clarke, Peter (2004). Encyclopedia of new religious movements. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-203-48433-9.
- Kemp, Daren (2004). New age: a guide : alternative spiritualities from Aquarian conspiracy to Next Age. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-1532-2.
- Sloat, Sarah. "Why one popular personality test is "pseudoscientific at best"". Inverse. Retrieved 2021-02-16.