Kingdom of France

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Kingdom of France

Royaume de France  (French)
  • 987–1792
  • 1814–1815
  • 1815–1848
Flag of France
Royal Standard of the King of France.svg
(Top: Flag of France before Huguenot Wars at 16th century,
Bottom: Flag after Huguenot Wars)
Anthem: Marche Henri IV
"March of Henry IV"

La Parisienne
"The Parisian"
The Kingdom of France in 1789.
The Kingdom of France in 1789.
Common languages
Roman Catholicism
• 987–996
Hugh Capet
• 1180–1223
Philip II
• 1364–1380
Charles V
• 1422–1461
Charles VII
• 1589–1610
Henry IV
• 1643–1715
Louis XIV
• 1774–1792
Louis XVI
• 1814–1824
• 1824–1830
Charles X
• 1830–1848
Louis Philippe I
Prime Minister 
• 1815
Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand
• 1847–1848
François Guizot
Chamber of Peers
Chamber of Deputies
Historical eraMedieval / Early Modern
• Begin of Capetian dynasty
3 July 987
5 May 1789
6 April 1814
2 August 1830
24 February 1848
CurrencyLivre, Franc, Écu, Louis d'or
ISO 3166 codeFR
Preceded by
Succeeded by
West Francia
First French Empire
French First Republic
French Second Republic

The Kingdom of France (royaume de France) is the name given to various political entities of France in the Middle Ages and modern times. According to historians, three major events started the Kingdom of France: the advent of Clovis I in 481, the Treaty of Verdun and the election of Hugues Capet in 987. The kingdom lasted until 1792 and was briefly restored in 1814 to 1815 and then from 1815 to 1848.

The King of the Franks, Clovis I, sealed the alliance of Frankish Kingdoms with the Catholic Church at his baptism. That alliance was perpetuated in the Kingdom of France by the crowning of kings at Reims, which made them monarchs by divine right. The first Capetians were anxious to crown their eldest son in their lifetime because their authority was limited in reality to the Ile de France. It was not until Philippe Auguste that their official acts called it the Kingdom of France and that they are able to make a real act of authority throughout the kingdom. Their territory was the feudal fiefs of which king of Western France had been the suzerain since the 843 division of the Carolingian Empire.

The gradual integration of the feudal fiefs into the royal domain required the establishment of a royal administration. Louis IX attached the main importance to its role as justiciary. The parlement, the high court of justice, was put in place. The Hundred Years' War allowed Charles VII to establish an army and permanent taxes. Richelieu and Louis XIV strengthened the royal authority in the provinces by bringing the local governors of the nobility under their stewardship and by delegating to them stewards appointed by the king.

The tendency of royalty to exercise more and more absolute power could be challenged in times of turmoil, civil wars and the reigns of minor kings. The dispute took a more pronounced character on the occasion of the diffusion of the philosophy of enlightenment and of the values that it carried: government of reason, separation of powers, individual liberties. The French Revolution led to the establishment of a French constitutional monarchy. However, the different formulas experienced failure in 1792, 1830 and 1848, which ended the French monarchy.