Modernism was a philosophical movement from the end of the 19th Century to the first half of the 20th Century. It was both cultural and political. It covers new forms of art, literature, music, architecture and drama , but also in political ideologies that rose up like fascism and communism.
Modernism grew out of the Enlightenment and its belief in science, but rejected earlier tradition. It was interested in new ways of doing old things. Also, there was a belief that science and technology could change the world for the better. Modernism began in the late 19th century and carried on until about 1950. The details differ greatly, and the term covers some movements which are somewhat contradictory.
Art[change | change source]
Art is where people can find Modernism. Modern art is what replaced classical art. It included Abstract art, Cubism, Pop art, Minimalism, and Dadaism. It affected sculpture quite strongly, though at the beginning sculptors like Rodin and Epstein made both traditional and modernist works. Henry Moore is one of the most famous modernist sculptors.
Music[change | change source]
Dance[change | change source]
Ballets such as The Rite of Spring and Les Noces (The Wedding) mark the arrival of modernism into this traditional dance form. Modern dance outside of ballet started with Isadora Duncan, Loie Fuller and Ruth St. Denis.
Literature[change | change source]
James Joyce's Ulysses is the classic example of modernism in the novel. Ulysses has been called "a demonstration and summation of the entire Modernist movement". T. S. Eliot's poem The Wasteland is another prime example.
Architecture[change | change source]
Modernism in architecture is found in the work of Frank Lloyd Wright, Le Corbusier, Walter Gropius, and Mies van der Rohe. Le Corbusier's famous remark "A building is a machine for living in" shows how different his thinking was to architects of the 19th century. The skyscraper, such as Mies van der Rohe's Seagram Building in New York (1956–1958), became the archetypal modernist building.
Criticism[change | change source]
A criticism of the modern movement is that it doesn't value tradition, and that it goes in for change for the sake of change. What Modernists want most is freedom of expression, or, perhaps, freedom of experimentation. This is why many modern paintings avoid making visual copies of real things. In modernist literature, an author may leave out plots or narrative or characterization in books.
These experiments were not random. They drew on the ideas of their day: mass media, science and technology, Marxism, Freudian psychology, and so on. There was a general search for new materials, new methods and new ideas. There was often a rejection of elitism, and a love of populism and popular culture.
Another criticism was of the connection between modernism and socialism. Certainly many modernists were also socialists. In the early days of socialism it seemed to offer hope of a new future without the baggage of the past. This also explains their rejection of tradition.
References[change | change source]
- Childs, Peter 2000. Modernism. Routledge, London.
- Lewis, Pericles 2000, Modernism, nationalism, and the novel. Cambridge University Press.
- Beebe, Maurice 1972. "Ulysses and the Age of Modernism". James Joyce Quarterly (University of Tulsa) 10 (1): p176.