Mujaddid (Arabic: مجدد) in Islam is a reformer who is given the task of removing errors that have occurred among Muslims. Their job is to show people the great religious truths which the Muslim community will be asked to face.
The Arabic word mujaddid means "reformer", "renewer" or "regenerator". It is someone who revives and changes the religion. The concept of tajdid (renewal or revival) and the term mujaddid come rather from a hadith, a statement of the Prophet Muhammad. This hadith was written down by Abu Dawood in his Sunan, one of the six authoritative Sunni collections of the Prophet's statements. In this hadith, the Prophet says:
This means reform is in the essential nature of Islam and Muslims are called all the time to work hard to make new ideas cope with tradition. It also means that not everything in the Muslim tradition is useful and good for this modern age; there are certain things that were possible in the past but are no longer relevant today. Slavery would be a prime example.
- 1 The concept of tajdid in Islamic thought
- 2 The reformers in Islam
- 3 Controversial figures
- 4 Gallery
- 5 References
- 6 Other websites
The concept of tajdid in Islamic thought[change | change source]
Tajdid (renewal) in Islamic thought means renewing the ideology representing the intellectual product of Muslims in the fields of science, knowledge and ijtihad to interpret Islam and understand and explicate its rulings.
Al-Suyuti mentioned in his book Al-Jami' al-Sagheer, "Renewing religion means renewing its guidance, clarifying its truth and precedence, refuting the innovations and extremism presented to its followers or their reluctance in upholding it, and following its rules in managing the interests of the people and the law of society and civilization."
Among the most manifest aspects of tajdid (renewal) in Islamic thought is the renewal of Islamic sciences as follows:
- The science of Islamic doctrine.
- The Principles of Islamic jurisprudence.
- The science of Jurisprudence.
- The science of the sunnah.
- The science of Qur'anic exegesis (tafsir).
- The science of Purification and Code of Conduct (Sufism).
- The biography of the Prophet and Islamic history.
The reformers in Islam[change | change source]
There is no formal mechanism for designating a mujaddid. The persons of this list are claimed to be Mujaddid.
1th Century AH[change | change source]
- Al-Hasan al-Basri (21–110 A.H./642–728 A.D.)
- Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (63–101 A.H./682–720 A.D.)
- Abu Hanifah (80–150 A.H./702–772 A.D.)
- Malik ibn Anas (93–179 A.H./711–795 A.D.)
2th Century AH[change | change source]
- Muhammad ibn Idris al-Shafi'i (150–204 A.H./767–820 A.D.)
- Ahmad ibn Hanbal (164–241 A.H./781–855 A.D.)
3th Century AH[change | change source]
- Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari (260–324 A.H./873–935 A.D.)
- Abu Mansur al-Maturidi (238–333 A.H./852–944 A.D.)
- Abu Ja'far al-Tahawi (239–321 A.H./853–933 A.D.)
- Ibn Surayj (249–306 A.H./864–918 A.D.)
4th Century AH[change | change source]
- Abu Bakr al-Baqillani (338–403 A.H./950–1013 A.D.)
- Ibn Furak (330–406 A.H./941–1015 A.D.)
- Al-Hakim al-Nishapuri (321–405 A.H./933–1014 A.D.)
- Abu Hamid al-Isfarayini (344–406 A.H./955–1015 A.D.)
- Abu al-Tayyib Sahl al-Sa'luki (000–404 A.H./000–1013/14 A.D.)
- Ibn Hazm al-Andalusi (384–456 A.H./994–1064 A.D.)
- Abu al-Ma'ali al-Juwayni (419–478 A.H./1028–1085 A.D.)
5th Century AH[change | change source]
- Abu Hamid al-Ghazali (450–505 A.H./1058–1111 A.D.)
- Ibn al-Jawzi (509/510–597 A.H./1116–1201 A.D.)
- Ahmad al-Rifa'i (512–578 A.H./1118–1182 A.D.)
6th Century AH[change | change source]
- Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (543/44–606 A.H./1149–1209 A.D.)
- Abu al-Qasim al-Rafi'i (555–623 A.H./1160–1226 A.D.)
- Al-Baydawi (000–685 A.H./000–1286 A.D.)
- Al-'Izz ibn 'Abd al-Salam (577–660 A.H./1181/82–1262 A.D.)
7th Century AH[change | change source]
- Ibn Daqiq al-'ld (625–702 A.H./1228–1302 A.D.)
- Ibn 'Ata' Allah al-Sakandari (658–709 A.H./1259–1309 A.D.)
- Ibn Battuta (703–779 A.H./1304–1377 A.D.)
- Abu Ishaq al-Shatibi (720–790 A.H./1320–1388 A.D.)
- Al-Taftazani (722–793 A.H./1322–1390 A.D.)
8th Century AH[change | change source]
- Siraj al-Din al-Bulqini (724-805 A.H./1324-1403 A.D.)
- Zain al-Din al-'Iraqi (725-806 A.H./1325-1404 A.D.)
- Ibn Khaldun (732-808 A.H./1332-1406 A.D.)
9th Century AH[change | change source]
- Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti (849–911 A.H./1445–1505 A.D.)
- Zakariyya al-Ansari (823–926 A.H./1420–1520 A.D.)
- 'Abd al-Wahhab al-Sha'rani (898–973 A.H./1493–1565 A.D.)
10th Century AH[change | change source]
- Shams al-Din al-Ramli (919–1004 A.H./1513–1596 A.D.)
- Khayr al-Din al-Ramli (993–1081 A.H./1585–1671 A.D.)
- Ahmad Sirhindi (971–1034 A.H./1564–1624 A.D.)
11th Century AH[change | change source]
- Aurangzeb (1068–1118 A.H./1658–1707 A.D.)
- 'Abdallah ibn 'Alawi al-Haddad (1044–1132 A.H./1634–1719 A.D.)
- Shah Waliullah Dehlawi (1114–1176 A.H./1703–1762 A.D.)
12th Century AH[change | change source]
- Murtada al-Zabidi (1145–1205 A.H./1732–1791 A.D.)
- Ahmad ibn 'Ajiba (1160–1224 A.H./1747–1809 A.D.)
- Shah Abdul Aziz Dehlawi (1159–1239 A.H./1746–1824 A.D.)
13th Century AH[change | change source]
- Ahmad Raza Khan Barelvi (1272–1340 A.H./1856–1921 A.D.)
- 'Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakibi (1271–1320 A.H./1855–1902 A.D.)
- Muhammad 'Abduh (1266–1323 A.H./1849–1905 A.D.)
- Muhammad Rashid Reda (1282–1354 A.H./1865–1935 A.D.)
- Muhammad al-Tahir ibn 'Ashur (1296–1393 A.H./1879–1973 A.D.)
- Bediuzzaman Said Nursi (1294–1379 A.H./1877–1960 A.D.)
- Muhammad Zahid al-Kawthari (1296–1371 A.H./1878–1951 A.D.)
- Muhammad Mustafa al-Maraghi (1298–1364 A.H./1881–1945 A.D.)
- Abbas Mahmoud al-Akkad (1306–1383 A.H./1889–1964 A.D.)
- Mahmoud Shaltout (1310–1383 A.H./1893–1963 A.D.)
- Muhammad Abu Zahrah (1315/16–1394 A.H./1898–1974 A.D.)
- Malek Bennabi (1323–1393 A.H./1905–1973 A.D.)
- Abdel-Halim Mahmoud (1328–1397 A.H./1910–1978 A.D.)
- Muhammad Ilyas Kandhlawi (1302 - 1363 A.H / 1885 -1944 A.D )
14th Century AH[change | change source]
- Muhammad Mutawalli al-Sha'rawi (1329–1419 A.H./1911–1998 A.D.)
- Ahmad Deedat (1336–1426 A.H./1918–2005 A.D.)
- 'Abdullah al-Harari (1328–1429 A.H./1910–2008 A.D.)
- Mustafa Mahmoud (1340–1430 A.H./1921–2009 A.D.)
- Mustafa Raza Khan Qadri (1310–1401 A.H./1892–1981 A.D.)
Controversial figures[change | change source]
- Ibn Taymiyyah (661–728 A.H./1263–1328 A.D.)
- Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab (1115–1206 A.H./1703–1792 A.D.)
- Usman dan Fodio (1167–1233 A.H./1754–1817 A.D.)
- Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (1255–1326 A.H./1835 or 1839–1908 A.D.)
- Al-Albani (1332–1420 A.H./1914–1999 A.D.)
Gallery[change | change source]
References[change | change source]
- Tuhfat al-Muhtadin bi Akhbar al-Mujaddidin (Arabic: تحفة المهتدين بأخبار المجددين) by Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti.
- Mausu'at A'lam al-Mujaddidin fi al-Islam (Arabic: موسوعة أعلام المجددين في الإسلام) by Samih Kurayyim.
- Mujaddid - Islamic Encyclopedia
- Ali, Maulana Muhammad (2011). The Religion of Islam by Muhammad Ali. Ahmadiyya Anjuman Ishaat Islam Lahore USA. p. 190. ISBN 978-1-934271-18-6.
- "Hadith - Book of Battles (Kitab Al-Malahim) - Sunan Abi Dawud - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.
- Islam and modernity: Islamist movements and the politics of position by Said Mentak.
- "Reform (Islah) and Renewal (Tajdid) in Islamic Thought". Dar al-Ifta al-Misriyyah.
- "Renewal (Tajdid) in Islamic sciences". Dar al-Ifta al-Misriyyah.