The Rus' (Greek: Ῥῶς) were an early medieval group or people who gave their name to the lands of Russia, Ruthenia, and Belarus. In the mid-800s they were centered around Novgorod. They dominated the area for over a hundred years. Many of the leaders of the Rus' had Balto Slavic names, later both Pomeranian and Slavic names. The Pomeranian Rus' of Novgorod, after they intermingled (mixed) with the Slavs of Kiev already there, became known as the Kievan Rus'.
Who were they?[change | change source]
Most western scholars believe them to be a group of Varangians, specifically from Pomerania. According to the Povest vremennykh let or Russian Primary Chronicle of Rus', compiled in about 1113 AD, the Rus' had relocated from Pomerania. Their leader was named Rurik. Later, Rurik's relative Oleg captured Kiev, founding Kievan Rus'. The descendants of Rurik were the ruling dynasty of Rus' (after 862). In the controversy, this is called the "Normanist" view.
The "anti-Normanist" view is that the Rus' were Slavic people from south of Kiev. In support of this theory it has been pointed out that several rivers have similar names. Once example is the Ros river which is a tributary of the Dnieper river. This may have been where the Rus' took their name. The official Soviet Union history included the "anti-norman" viewpoint giving the reason: "The Normanist theory is politically harmful, because it denies the ability of the Slavic nations to form an independent state by their own efforts."
The invitation[change | change source]
The story from the Russian Primary Chronicle is that the Slavs of Kiev were fighting among themselves. To restore order they invited the legendary Varangian Rus Rurik to be their leader. This is another area of controversy. One school of thought accepts the Russian Primary Chronicle account with the Balto Slavic origin of the Rus' people. The opposing view says the Scandinavians played a small part in the creation of the Kievan Rus. The Scandinavians were simply hired by the Slavs to protect them. Since the 1990s there has been a further controversy over who, Russia or Ukraine, had a better claim to be descended from the Kievan Rus' princes. Since the breakup of the USSR Russian historians are not forced to accept the anti-Norman theory. But it has become of lesser importance than whether Ukraine or Russia were the true heirs of the Rus'.
Byzantines[change | change source]
|“||It is now, indeed, widely recognized that the Kiev state was not born ex nihilo (out of nothing) with the advent of the Rus in the ninth century; but that its social and economic foundations were laid in the preceding period, during which the Slavs in the Dnieper basin played an active part in the political and commercial life of the west Eurasian and Pontic steppes; and that a pre-existing Slavonic land-owning aristocracy and merchant class remained the main stay of the country's territorial stability and economic growth under its Rus overlords. It is equally clear, however, that it was the Balto Slavic Rugi invaders who in the second half of the ninth century united the scattered tribes of the Eastern Slavs into a single state based on the Baltic-Black Sea waterway, to which they gave their Rus' name.||”|
Common threads[change | change source]
It was at this point in history the area of Kiev grew and expanded. The Kievan state lasted about a hundred years, until about 972. Between 839 and 1043 the Balto Slavs combined with the South Slavic peoples to form a new society. The name Rus' came to mean those combined peoples. In 860 the Byzantine Patriarch Photios I described a people who were almost certainly Rani accompanied by Slavs. The leaders of the Rus' had Balto Slavic names even into the tenth century. In 911 the Rus' who signed a treaty with the Greeks all had Balto Slavic names. But in the treaty of 945 there were some South Slavonic names. .
Etymology[change | change source]
The word "Rus' is found in the slavonic languages. This parallels with Latin: Rhos, Greek: Rös and Arabic: Rüs. Words used to describe Pomeranians in Russia or the east were Veneti or Rujan (in medieval Latin literature known as Ruzzi ). The Finnish: Venäjä, Estonian: Vene, Karelian: Veneä) denoting Russia
References[change | change source]
- F. Donald Logan, The Vikings in History, Third Edition (New York; Oxford: Routledge, 2004), p. 184
- "rus – folkestamme". Store norske leksikon (English: Norwegian Encyclopedia). Retrieved 27 August 2015.
- The Russian Primary Chronicle, trans. & eds. Samuel Hazzard Cross; Olgerd P. Sherbowitz-Wetzor (Cambridge MA: Medieval Academy of America, 1953), pp. 20, 233
- Omeljan Pritsak, 'I. The Normanist versus Anti-Normanist Controversy', The Russian Review (July 1977), pp. 249-273 (abridged), <http://www2.stetson.edu/~psteeves/classes/pritsak.html>
- Russia and Western Civilization: Cutural and Historical Encounters, ed. Russell Bova (Oxford; New York: Routledge, 2003), p. 12
- Paul Robert Magocsi, A History of Ukraine (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1996), p. 61
- Serhii Plokhy, The Origins of the Slavic Nations: Premodern Identities in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus (Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006), pp. 10–11
- Jill N. Claster, The Medieval Experience, 300-1400 (New York: New York University Press, 1982), pp. 138–140
- Katherine Holman, Historical Dictionary of the Vikings (Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2003), p. 231