The Solar System is about 4.6 billion years old. It formed by gravity in a large molecular cloud. Most of this matter came together in the center, and the rest flattened into an orbiting disk that became the Solar System. It is thought that almost all stars form by this process.
The Sun is a star. It makes up 99.9% of the Solar System's mass. This means that it has strong gravity. The other objects are pulled into orbit around the Sun. The Sun is mostly made out of hydrogen, and some helium and higher elements.
There are eight planets in the Solar System. From closest to farthest from the Sun, they are: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. The first four planets are called terrestrial planets. They are mostly made of rock and metal, and they are mostly solid. The last four planets are called gas giants. This is because they are much larger than other planets and are mostly made of gas.
It is almost certain that the planets were disturbed early in the evolution of the Solar System. This is discussed under "Grand tack hypothesis" below.
The Solar System also contains other things. There are asteroid belts, mostly between Mars and Jupiter. Further out than Neptune, there is the Kuiper belt and the scattered disc. These areas have dwarf planets, including Pluto, Makemake, Haumea, Ceres and Eris. There are thousands of very small objects in these areas. There are also comets, centaurs, and interplanetary dust.
Six of the planets, and the six largest dwarf planets, are orbited by moons. There are about 200 moons in the Solar System. Mercury and Venus have no moons, and Jupiter and Saturn have the largest number of moons. The largest moon is Ganymede which is a moon of Jupiter.
Evolution of the Solar System[change | change source]
Most of the collapsing mass collected in the centre, forming the Sun, while the rest flattened into a protoplanetary disk of loose dust, out of which the planets, moons, asteroids, and other Solar System bodies formed.
This model, known as the nebular hypothesis, was developed in the 18th (1700s) century by Emanuel Swedenborg, Immanuel Kant, and Pierre-Simon Laplace. It has been adjusted by scientific disciplines such as astronomy, physics, geology, and planetary science. As our knowledge of space has grown, the models have been changed to account for the new observations.
The Solar System has evolved considerably since its initial formation. Many moons have formed from circling discs of gas and dust around their parent planets, while other moons are believed to have formed and were later captured by their planets. Still others, as the Earth's Moon, may be the result of giant collisions.
Many collisions between bodies have occurred, and have been important to the evolution of the Solar System. In the early stages, the positions of the planets sometimes shifted, and planets have switched places. This planetary migration is thought to have been responsible for much of the Solar System's early evolution.
Earth's orbit[change | change source]
The Earth's orbit around the Sun is nearly a perfect circle, but when mapped it is found that the Earth moves around the Sun in a very slightly oval shaped orbit, called an elliptical orbit. The other planets in the Solar System also orbits the Sun in slightly elliptical orbits. Mercury has a more elliptical orbit than the others, and some of the smaller objects orbit the Sun in very eccentric orbits.
Discovery and exploration[change | change source]
For thousands of years, people had no need for a name for the "Solar System". They thought the Earth stayed still at the center of everything (geocentrism). Although the Greek philosopher Aristarchus of Samos suggested that there was a special order in the sky, Nicolaus Copernicus was the first to develop a mathematical system that described what we now call the "solar system". This was called a new "system of the world". In the 17th century, Galileo Galilei, Johannes Kepler and Isaac Newton began helping people understand physics more clearly. People began to accept the idea that the Earth is a planet and moves around the Sun, and that the planets are worlds with the same physical laws that control Earth. More recently, telescopes and space probes have led to discoveries of mountains and craters, and seasonal meteorological phenomena such as clouds, dust storms and ice caps on the other planets.
Grand tack hypothesis[change | change source]
Astronomers are now more or less certain that the order of the planets was not always as it is today. Knowing what we know today, we can see the Solar System is strange. All other planetary system we are able to study have their largest planet close to their star. Also we have noticed other oddities in the Solar System. Mars is smaller than it ought to be, and the asteroid belt has been disturbed.
The eight planets[change | change source]
In their order from the Sun:
The planets are the biggest objects that go around the Sun. It took people many years of using telescopes to find the objects that were farthest away. New planets might still be found, and more small objects are found every year. Most of the planets have moons that orbit around them just as the planets orbit the Sun. There are at least 173 of these moons in the solar system.
Dwarf planets[change | change source]
Pluto was discovered by American astronomer Clyde Tombaugh and was declared the 9th planet of the solar system in 1930.
This all changed on August 24, 2006, when the International Astronomical Union (IAU) decided on the correct definition for the word "planet" for the first time. By this definition, Pluto was not a planet anymore due to its irregular orbit and size.
It became a "dwarf planet" along with Eris and many others. Eris was more massive than Pluto. After this, Pluto was put on the list of minor planets and was downgraded in 2006 by astronomer Michael E Brown. Instead they defined a new category of dwarf planet, into which Pluto did fit, along with some others. These small planets are sometimes called plutinos.
Structure[change | change source]
There are a few main parts of the Solar System. Here they are in order from the Sun, with the planets numbered, and the dwarf planets marked with the letters a to e.
Inner solar system[change | change source]
The first four planets closest to the Sun are called the inner planets. They are small and dense terrestrial planets, with solid surfaces. They are made up of mostly rock and metal with a distinct internal structure and a similar size. Three also have an atmosphere. The study of the four planets gives information about geology outside the Earth. Most asteroids are also often counted with the inner planets
- Terrestrial planets region contains the four planets closest to the sun, all are rocky planets
- Asteroid belt region contains;
Outer solar system[change | change source]
- Gas giant planets region contains;
Trans-Neptune region[change | change source]
- Kuiper belt region contains;
- Scattered disc region contains;
Oort Cloud[change | change source]
Ecliptic plane[change | change source]
The plane of the ecliptic is defined by the Earth's orbit around the Sun. All of the planets orbit the Sun roughly around this same orbital plane. The farther away from this plane a planet orbits, the more inclined is its orbit to the ecliptic. If you could look at the solar system "edge on" then all the planets would be orbiting more or less in the plane of the ecliptic.
References[change | change source]
- Connelly, James N.; et al. (2012). "The absolute chronology and thermal processing of solids in the Solar protoplanetary disk". Science. 338 (6107): 651–655. Bibcode:2012Sci...338..651C. doi:10.1126/science.1226919. PMID 23118187. S2CID 21965292.
- More precisely, 99.86 of its known mass. The total mass of the bodies in the Oort cloud is not known. Jupiter and Saturn account for 90% of the remaining 0.14%.
- Draper J.W. 1874. History of the conflict between religion and science. New York: D. Appleton 1874, p172–173. ISBN 978-1-59102-533-7
- Bouvier, Audrey; Wadhwa, Meenakshi (2010), "The age of the Solar System redefined by the oldest Pb–Pb age of a meteoritic inclusion", Nature Geoscience, 3 (9): 637–641, Bibcode:2010NatGe...3..637B, doi:10.1038/ngeo941
Date based on oldest inclusions found to date in meteorites, thought to be among the first solid material to form in the collapsing solar nebula.
- R. Gomes H.F.; et al. (2005). "Origin of the cataclysmic Late Heavy Bombardment period of the terrestrial planets" (PDF). Nature. 435 (7041): 466–469. Bibcode:2005Natur.435..466G. doi:10.1038/nature03676. PMID 15917802. S2CID 4398337.
- A. Morbidelli J.; et al. (2000). "Source regions and timescales for the delivery of water to the Earth". Meteoritics & Planetary Science. 35 (6): 1309–1320. Bibcode:2000M&PS...35.1309M. doi:10.1111/j.1945-5100.2000.tb01518.x. ISSN 1086-9379. S2CID 129817341.
- WC Rufus (1923). "The astronomical system of Copernicus". Popular Astronomy. 31: 510. Bibcode:1923PA.....31..510R. Retrieved 2009-05-09.
- "IAU 2006 General Assembly: Result of the IAU Resolution votes". IAU. Retrieved 2018-09-04.
More reading[change | change source]
- Lang, Kenneth R. (2011). The Cambridge guide to the Solar System (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521198578
Other websites[change | change source]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Solar System.|
- Views of the Solar System
- Your Weight on Other Worlds
- Solar System Citizendium
- The Planets in the Solar System Archived 2021-07-10 at the Wayback Machine
|The English Wikibooks has more information on:|