European Capital of Culture

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The European Capital of Culture is a city chosen by the European Union for a period of one calendar year. The city is given a chance to show its cultural life and cultural development. Most of the cities are very popular and are known internationally (by people around the world).

List of by year[change | edit source]

Past years[change | edit source]

List of capitals chosen by year
Year Cities Image Details
1985 Greece Athens
1986 Italy Florence
1987 Netherlands Amsterdam
1988 Germany West Berlin
1989 France Paris
1990 United Kingdom Glasgow
1991 Republic of Ireland Dublin
1992 Spain Madrid
1993 Belgium Antwerp
1994 Portugal Lisbon
1995 Luxembourg Luxembourg
1996 Denmark Copenhagen
1997 Greece Thessaloniki
1998 Sweden Stockholm
1999 Germany Weimar
2000 France Avignon
Norway Bergen
Italy Bologna
Belgium Brussels
Finland Helsinki
Poland Krakow
Czech Republic Prague
Iceland Reykjavík
Spain Santiago de Compostela
2001 Portugal Porto
Netherlands Rotterdam
2002 Belgium Bruges
Spain Salamanca
2003 Austria Graz
2004 Italy Genoa
France Lille
2005 Republic of Ireland Cork
2006 Greece Patras
2007 Romania Sibiu
Luxembourg Luxembourg
Greater Region
Sibiu 2007
2008 United Kingdom Liverpool
Norway Stavanger
Norway Sandnes
Liverpool 2008
Stavanger 2008
2009 Austria Linz
Lithuania Vilnius
Vilnius 2009
Linz 2009
2010 Germany Essen
Turkey Istanbul
Hungary Pécs
Istanbul 2010
Essen 2010
Pecs 2010
2011 Finland Turku
Estonia Tallinn
Turku 2011
Tallinn 2011
2012 Portugal Guimarães
Slovenia Maribor
Guimarães 2012
Maribor 2012

Future years[change | edit source]

According to the official EU website.[1] From 2014 to 2019, these are only the countries have been chosen, based on the rotation system.

Future years
Year City Details
2013 France Marseille
Slovakia Košice
Marseille Provence 2013
Košice 2013
2014  Sweden
 Latvia
2015  Belgium
 Czech Republic
2016  Spain
 Poland
2017  Denmark
 Cyprus
2018  Netherlands
 Malta
2019  Italy
 Bulgaria

References[change | edit source]

  1. Official EU website
  • García, B. (2005) “De-constructing the City of Culture: The long term cultural legacies of Glasgow 1990” in: Review Issue of Urban Studies (vol 42, n5/6) (pp. 1–28)
  • García, B. (2004) “Cultural Policy in European Cities: Lessons from Experience, Prospects for the Future” in: Special edition on Cultural Policy and Regeneration, Local Economy (vol 19, n4) (pp. 312–326)
  • García, B. (2004) “Urban Regeneration, Arts Programming and Major events: Glasgow 1990, Sydney 2000 and Barcelona 2004” in: Gibson, L. & Stevenson, D. (Eds) Special Issue of the International Journal of Cultural Policy: Urban Space and the Uses of Culture (vol 10, n 1) (pp. 103–118)

Other websites[change | edit source]