Natural gas vehicle

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A natural gas vehicle or NGV is an alternative fuel vehicle that uses (compressed or liquefied) natural gas instead of other fossil fuels.

Natural gas[change | edit source]

What is it?[change | edit source]

Natural gas is a mixture. It consists mainly of hydrocarbons. The main component is methane. Natural gas is often found in the ground together with petroleum.

Storage and Transport[change | edit source]

The main difficulty in the use of natural gas is transportation. Natural gas pipelines are economical, but are impractical across oceans. Liquefied natural gas tankers are also used.

Compressed natural gas (CNG) is stored in containers at high pressure. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is stored at temperatures as low as - 260°F (- 162°C). At these temperature conditions, natural gas is in a liquid state.

Industrial use[change | edit source]

Natural gas is used for the production of electricity, it is also often used because of ecological aspects(in comparison with other fossil fuels it burns more clean), and last but not least for the fuel for vehicles.

Natural gas vehicle and technology[change | edit source]

History[change | edit source]

Étienne Lenoir built 1862 the first gas engine, before there have been fuel and diesel engines. Over the years gas was used in many different machines, so the technology improved also. From the 1950s the automobile industry focused more on fuel technology than on gas technology. There have only been single cars with natural gas technology and few gas stations which offered natural gas. Because of climate and environment the role of natural gas became more and more important.

Current development[change | edit source]

Worldwide existing about 5.7 million natural gas vehicles.(Argentina, Brasilia and Pakistan together count 4.2 million!)

Europe

The French automobile producer Citroen is cooperating with a French gas supplier and wants to offer a compressor which is connected to the private gas connection at home, so that everyone can refuel his car at home.The price for the compressor will be about 500 €. There will be also a tax reduction for people who have bought a new NGV. And the business group carrefour wants to install natural gas stations.(Region Toulouse)

In London and surroundings, NGVs are free from paying the city toll. Owners of NGVs have to pay less motor vehicle tax.

Until 2011 MAN will deliver 135 busses with natural gas engines for the municipal use of the city Den Haag.

Asia

The Turkish capital Ankara will increase their use of natural gas vehicles about 500.

In India has already started a development programme to reduce pollution.

The number of NGVs increases very fast in Pakistan. Meanwhile there are driving about 1.4 million cars.

In Thailand, the government is planning a switch from fuel gas stations to natural gas stations, and to develop the NGVs.

America

In Brasilia, the police of Rio de Janeiro were equipped with 632 natural gas vehicles.

The use of NGV in the USA, makes it possible to maintain under the Ultra Low Emission Vehicle Standards(ULEV).

Technology- how does it work?[change | edit source]

There are two variants of NG-technology, either the bifuel version, that means that the vehicle can drive with fuel or natural gas, or the monofuel version, this vehicle can only drive with natural gas. In principle the natural gas engine works like a otto-engine, the only significant difference is that this engine needs a natural gas-air-mix instead of fuel-air-mix.

A conversion is possible with each car(with a few exceptions).

The automobile industry will offer a new natural gas technology with turbo --> Turbo natural gas(TNG).

Companies which use this technology[change | edit source]

Profitability[change | edit source]

The advantages of natural gas are the lower price in comparison with fuel and the lower tax rate.

Supply in Germany[change | edit source]

Since January 2008 there are 771 natural gas stations in Germany. The supply network will expand constantly.The E.ON Gas Mobil GmbH wants to install over 150 natural gas stations close to the freeways.

Conclusion[change | edit source]

The natural gas technology was and is still very popular. Because of the current gas-conflict in Russia, natural gas became less popular. However, natural gas is a finite resource. The prices for gas will increase in the next years (like fuel), so there will be needed new technologies in the future.

Other websites[change | edit source]