Thailand

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Kingdom of Thailand
ราชอาณาจักรไทย
Ratcha Anachak Thai
ประเทศไทย
Prathet Thai
Flag
Anthem: Phleng Chat Thai

Royal anthemPhleng Sansoen Phra Barami
Location of  Thailand  (green)in ASEAN  (dark grey)  —  [Legend]
Location of  Thailand  (green)

in ASEAN  (dark grey)  —  [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Bangkok (Thai: Krung Thep)1
13°45′N 100°29′E / 13.75°N 100.483°E / 13.75; 100.483
Official languages Thai[1]
Official scripts Thai alphabet
Ethnic groups (2009[1][2]) Thai (75%)

 • Northeastern Thai (Isan) (34.2%)
 • Central Thai (33.7%)
 • Southern Thai (13.3%)
Chinese (14%)
Khmer (7%)
Malay (3%)

Other (1%)
Demonym Thai
Government Unitary parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy
 -  King Bhumibol Adulyadej
 -  Prime Minister Prayuth Chan-ocha
Legislature National Assembly
 -  Upper house Senate
 -  Lower house House of Representatives
Formation
 -  Sukhothai Kingdom 1238–1448 
 -  Ayutthaya Kingdom 1351–1767 
 -  Thonburi Kingdom 1768–1782 
 -  Rattanakosin Kingdom 6 April 1782 
 -  Constitutional monarchy 24 June 1932 
 -  2007 Constitution 24 August 2007 
Area
 -  Total 513,120 km2 (51st)
198,115 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 0.4 (2,230 km2)
Population
 -  2011 estimate 66,720,1532[3] (20th)
 -  2010 census 65,479,453[4]
 -  Density 132.1/km2 (88th)
342/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2011 estimate
 -  Total $616.783 billion[5] (24th)
 -  Per capita $9,598[5] (84th)
GDP (nominal) 2011 estimate
 -  Total $332.47 billion[5] (30th)
 -  Per capita $5,174[5] (89th)
Gini (2009) 42.5[6]
medium
HDI (2011) Increase 0.682[7]
medium · 103rd
Currency Baht (฿) (THB)
Time zone (UTC+7)
Drives on the left
Calling code +66
Internet TLD .th, .ไทย
1. ^ Thai name: กรุงเทพมหานคร Krung Thep Maha Nakhon or Krung Thep. The full name is กรุงเทพมหานคร อมรรัตนโกสินทร์ มหินทรายุทธยา มหาดิลกภพ นพรัตนราชธานีบุรีรมย์ อุดมราชนิเวศน์มหาสถาน อมรพิมานอวตารสถิต สักกะทัตติยะวิษณุกรรมประสิทธิ์ Krung Thep Mahanakhon Amon Rattanakosin Mahinthara Yuthaya Mahadilok Phop Noppharat Ratchathani Burirom Udomratchaniwet Mahasathan Amon Phiman Awatan Sathit Sakkathattiya Witsanukam Prasit.
2. ^ According to the Department of Provincial Administration's official register, not taking into account unregistered citizens and immigrants.

Thailand (/ˈtlænd/ TY-land or /ˈtlənd/ TY-lənd;[8] Thai: ประเทศไทย, RTGS: Prathet Thai), officially the Kingdom of Thailand (Thai: ราชอาณาจักรไทย, RTGS: Ratcha Anachak Thai; IPA: [râːt.tɕʰā ʔāːnāːtɕàk tʰāj] ( listen)), is a country in Southeast Asia. Its neighbours are Laos, Cambodia, Malaysia, and Myanmar. The country's name was Siam until June 24 1939.[9] It was again called Siam between 1945 and May 11 1949, when it changed back to Thailand. The word Thai (ไทย) comes from the ethnic group in the centre of Thailand. The capital city is Bangkok. Thailand is the only country in Southeast Asia that was not ruled by Western countries as it served as a buffer zone between English and French colonies.

Thailand is a constitutional monarchy. It has a King as a head of state. The present king is Bhumibol Adulyadej. He has been the head of state for longer than other heads of state (kings) today.

Most of the people of Thailand (95%) follow the philosophy called Buddhism. However, a small number, mostly in the southern part of the country, follow the religion Islam. Other religions in Thailand are Christianity, Hinduism, and Sikhism. Now, some of the Muslims in the south have begun fighting the government of Thailand, because they want to be more independent (free of the control of another country).

History[change | change source]

Many people believe that the first Thai state was the Buddhist kingdom named Sukhothai founded in 1238. Sukhothai achieved independence from the kingdom of Cambodia.

A century later, a bigger Thai kingdom named Ayuthaya appeared in the South of Sukhothai. Later Sukhothai became a part of Ayuthaya. Ayuthaya existed for more than 400 years before its fall by the attack of a Burmese kingdom.

A Thai soldier of Chinese origin then founded a new capital city at Thonburi, and became King Tāksin. Thonburi was the capital for a short period.

The current era, Rattanakosin, started on the foundation of Bangkok as the capital city by King Rama I of Chakri Dynasty.

Before 1932, Thailand was an absolute monarchy, meaning the King had total power in the country. On June 24, 1932, a group of people staged a coup and changed Thailand to a constitutional monarchy. It was not until 1973 that Thai people voted for a Prime Minister in an election. There were coups both before and after this year.

On September 19, 2006, the army staged another coup d'état and took control from Thaksin Shinawatra's government.

Provinces[change | change source]

Thailand is divided into 77 provinces (จังหวัด, changwat), which make up 5 groups of provinces. There are also 2 special governed districts: the capital Bangkok (Krung Thep Maha Nakhon) and Pattaya. The 77 provinces are as follows:

Thailand provinces
Map of Thailand

Central[change | change source]

  1. Ang Thong
  2. Bangkok (Krung Thep Maha Nakhon), Special Governed District of
  3. Chai Nat
  4. Kanchanaburi
  5. Lopburi
  6. Nakhon Nayok
  7. Nakhon Pathom
  8. Nonthaburi
  9. Pathum Thani
  10. Phetchaburi
  11. Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya
  12. Prachuap Khiri Khan
  13. Ratchaburi
  14. Samut Prakan
  15. Samut Sakhon
  16. Samut Songkhram
  17. Saraburi
  18. Sing Buri
  19. Suphan Buri

East[change | change source]

  1. Chachoengsao
  2. Chanthaburi
  3. Chonburi
  4. Prachinburi
  5. Rayong
  6. Sa Kaeo
  7. Trat

North[change | change source]

  1. Chiang Mai
  2. Chiang Rai
  3. Kamphaeng Phet
  4. Lampang
  5. Lamphun
  6. Mae Hong Son
  7. Nakhon Sawan
  8. Nan
  9. Phayao
  10. Phetchabun
  11. Phichit
  12. Phitsanulok
  13. Phrae
  14. Sukhothai
  15. Tak
  16. Uthai Thani
  17. Uttaradit

Northeast (Isan)[change | change source]

  1. Amnat Charoen
  2. Bueng Kan
  3. Buri Ram
  4. Chaiyaphum
  5. Kalasin
  6. Khon Kaen
  7. Loei
  8. Maha Sarakham
  9. Mukdahan
  10. Nakhon Phanom
  11. Nakhon Ratchasima
  12. Nong Bua Lamphu
  13. Nong Khai
  14. Roi Et
  15. Sakon Nakhon
  16. Si Sa Ket
  17. Surin
  18. Ubon Ratchathani
    Phra Borommathat Nakhon Si Thammarat Thailand
  19. Udon Thani
  20. Yasothon

South[change | change source]

  1. Chumphon
  2. Krabi
  3. Nakhon Si Thammarat
  4. Narathiwat
  5. Pattani
  6. Phang Nga
  7. Phatthalung
  8. Phuket
  9. Ranong
  10. Satun
  11. Songkhla
  12. Surat Thani
  13. Trang
  14. Yala

NOTE: In italics [1], that province represents the Greater Bangkok sub-region; in italics [2], that province represents the West sub-region.

References[change | change source]

Footnotes[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Thailand, CIA World Factbook.
  2. West, Barbara A. (2009), Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania, Facts on File, p. 794
  3. ประกาศสานักทะเบียนกลาง กรมการปกครอง เรื่อง จานวนราษฎรทั่วราชอาณาจักร แยกเป็นกรุงเทพมหานครและจังหวัดต่าง ๆ ตามหลักฐานการทะเบียนราษฎร ณ วันที่ 31 ธันวาคม 2553
  4. National Statistics Office. "100th anniversary of population censuses in Thailand: Population and housing census 2010: 11th census of Thailand" (in Thai), online accessible at: [1], retrieved on 30 January 2012.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 "Report for Thailand". World Economic Outlook Database. International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2011/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=61&pr.y=20&sy=2010&ey=2015&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=578&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC&grp=0&a=. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
  6. "Human Development Report". UNDP. 2009. http://hdrstats.undp.org/en/indicators/161.html. Retrieved 27 October 2011.
  7. "Human Development Report 2011 – Human development statistical annex". HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. pp. 127–130. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2011_EN_Tables.pdf. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
  8. "Merriam-Webster Online". Merriam-webster.com. 25 April 2007. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/thailand. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
  9. Thailand (Siam) History, CSMngt-Thai.

Further reading[change | change source]

Other websites[change | change source]