|Republic of the Union of Myanmar
ပြည်ထောင်စု သမ္မတ မြန်မာနိုင်ငံတော်
Pyidaunzu Thanmăda Myăma Nainngandaw
|Anthem: Kaba Ma Kyei
Location of Myanmar (red) within South Asia
|Largest city||Yangon (Rangoon)|
|Recognised regional languages||Jingpho, Kayah, Karen, Chin, Mon, Rakhine, Shan|
|Official scripts||Burmese script|
|Ethnic groups||Burman 68%
|Demonym||Baurmese / Myanma|
|Government||Unitary presidential republic|
|-||Vice President||Tin Aung Myint Oo
Sai Mauk Kham
|-||Upper House||Amyotha Hluttaw|
|-||Lower House||Pyithu Hluttaw|
|-||Pagan Dynasty||23 December 849|
|-||Toungoo Dynasty||16 October 1510|
|-||Konbaung Dynasty||29 February 1752|
(from United Kingdom)
|4 January 1948|
|-||Coup d'état||2 March 1962|
|-||New constitution||30 March 2011|
|-||Total||676,578 km2 (40th)
261,227 sq mi
|-||2010 estimate||60,280,000 (24th)|
|-||1983 census||33,234,000 (3)|
|GDP (PPP)||2011 estimate|
|-||Total||$81.553 billion (76th)|
|-||Per capita||$1,307 (163rd)|
|GDP (nominal)||2010 estimate|
|-||Total||$42.953 billion (76th)|
|-||Per capita||$702 (155th)|
|HDI (2011)||0.483 (low) (149th)|
|Currency||kyat (K) (
|Time zone||MST (UTC+06:30)|
|Drives on the||right|
|1||Some governments recognise Rangoon as the national capital.|
Myanmar, officially called the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is the largest country in South East Asia that is not an island, partly considered as South Asian. It is bordered by China on the north, Laos on the east, Thailand on the southeast, Bangladesh on the west, and the India on the northwest, with the Andaman Sea to the south, and the Bay of Bengal to the southwest. There are over 2,000 kilometers (1,243 mi) of coast line. The country was ruled by a military junta led by General Ne Win from 1962 to 1988, and its political system today stays under the tight control of its military government. Since 1992, Myanmar has been ruled by Senior General Than Shwe.
National symbols of Myanmar[change]
Origin and history of the name[change]
In 1989, the military junta officially changed the English version of its name from Burma to Myanmar. It also made a new name in English for places in the country, such as its former capital city, from Rangoon to Yangon. The official name of the country in the Burmese language, Myanma did not change, however. The renaming was controversial, seen by some as linguistically bad. Accepting the name change in the English-speaking world has been slow, with many people still using the name Burma to refer to the country. Major news organizations like the BBC still call it Burma. Some question the military junta's authority to "officially" change the name in English in the first place. Aung San Suu Kyi, however, calls the country Myanmar now.
Myanmar had a strong kingdom in ancient times, but the nation was taken over by the British in the 1800s. Myanmar became independent in 1948 as the Union of Burma, and had a democratic government at first. However, in 1962, a coup d'état brought the military into power, where it has been ever since. The founder of modern Myanmar, Aung San was assassinated months before independence. His daughter Aung San Suu Kyi was placed under house arrest many times for leading the democracy movement.
In 1991, the military junta agreed to democratic elections, which were won by the National League for Democracy, and should have made Aung San Suu Kyi the Prime Minister. However, the dictatorship ignored the results of the elections and continued ruling. In November 2005, the military government stated that the national capital would be moved from Yangon to a location near Pyinmana, which was renamed Naypyidaw in March 2006.
Since independence in 1948 and the assassination of Aung San Burma has had civil wars between its governments and minority ethnic groups like the Kachin, Karen, Shan and others. These conflicts are known as the Internal conflict in Burma.
|2006 Rank||City||1983 Census||2006 Estimate||State/Region|
|1.||Yangon (Rangoon)||2,513,023||4,572,948||Yangon Region|
|3.||Naypyidaw (Nay Pyi Taw) *||0||924,608||Naypyidaw Union Territory|
- <http://www.adb.org/Documents/Fact_Sheets/MYA.pdf>. Retrieved 8 July 2010.
- "Burma (Myanmar)". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2011/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2008&ey=2011&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=518&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=54&pr.y=7. Retrieved 6 May 2011.
- "Human Development Report 2011". United Nations. 2011. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2011_EN_Tables.pdf. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
- Road infrastructure is still for driving on the left.
- CIA – The World Factbook – Burma
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