Turkmenistan

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Turkmenistan
Türkmenistan
Flag
Anthem: 
Garaşsyz Bitarap Türkmenistanyň Döwlet Gimni
Independent Neutral Turkmenistan State Anthem

Capital
and largest city
Ashgabat
37°58′N 58°20′E / 37.967°N 58.333°E / 37.967; 58.333
Official languages Turkmen
Inter-ethnic
languages
Russian, Uzbek
Ethnic groups (2003)
Demonym Turkmen
Government Dominant-party presidential state
 -  President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow
 -  Chariman of the Mejlis Akja Nuberdiyeva
Legislature Mejlis
Independence from the Soviet Union
 -  Declared 27 October 1991 
 -  Recognized 25 December 1991 
Area
 -  Total 491,210 km2[1] (52nd)
188,456 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 4.9
Population
 -  2012 estimate 5,125,693[2] (112th)
 -  Density 10.5/km2 (208th)
27.1/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2011 estimate
 -  Total $43.359 billion[3]
 -  Per capita $7,846[3]
GDP (nominal) 2011 estimate
 -  Total $25.742 billion[3]
 -  Per capita $4,658[3]
HDI (2013) 0.698[4]
medium · 102nd
Currency Turkmen new manat (TMT)
Time zone TMT (UTC+5)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+5)
Drives on the right
Calling code +993
Internet TLD .tm

Turkmenistan or Turkmenia is a country in the South-central Asia. It has borders with Afghanistan, Iran (Persia), Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan. It has no ocean coastline, but is on the Caspian Sea. The capital of Turkmenistan is Ashghabad.[5]

Provinces[change | change source]

Turkmenistan is divided into five provinces and one capital city district. The provinces are divided into districts which may be either counties or cities.

Division ISO 3166-2 Capital city Area[6] Pop (2005)[6] Key
Ashgabat City Ashgabat 470 km2 (180 sq mi) 871,500
Ahal Province TM-A Anau 97,160 km2 (37,510 sq mi) 939,700 1
Balkan Province TM-B Balkanabat  139,270 km2 (53,770 sq mi) 553,500 2
Daşoguz Province TM-D Daşoguz 73,430 km2 (28,350 sq mi) 1,370,400 3
Lebap Province TM-L Türkmenabat 93,730 km2 (36,190 sq mi) 1,334,500 4
Mary Province TM-M Mary 87,150 km2 (33,650 sq mi) 1,480,400 5

Climate[change | change source]

Turkmenistan is one of the driest desert areas in the world. Some places have an average annual precipitation of only 12 mm (0.47 in). The highest temperature recorded in Ashgabat is 48.0 °C (118.4 °F). Kerki, an extreme inland city located on the banks of the Amu Darya river, recorded 51.7 °C (125.1 °F) in July 1983, but this value is unofficial. 50.1C is the highest temperature recorded at Repetek Reserve, recognized as the highest temperature ever recorded in the whole former Soviet Union.

Geography[change | change source]

Turkmenistan is the world's 52nd-largest country. It is slightly smaller than Spain and somewhat larger than the US state of California. Over 80% of the country is covered by the Karakum Desert.

The Turkmen shore along the Caspian Sea is 1,768 kilometres (1,099 mi) long. The Caspian Sea is entirely landlocked, with no access to the ocean.

The major cities include Aşgabat, Türkmenbaşy (formerly Krasnovodsk) and Daşoguz.


References[change | change source]

  1. Государственный комитет Туркменистана по статистике : Информация о Туркменистане : О Туркменистане : Туркменистан — одна из пяти стран Центральной Азии, вторая среди них по площади (491,21 тысяч км2), расположен в юго-западной части региона в зоне пустынь, севернее хребта Копетдаг Туркмено-Хорасанской горной системы, между Каспийским морем на западе и рекой Амударья на востоке.
  2. Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009) (PDF). World Population Prospects, Table A.1. 2008 revision. United Nations. http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/wpp2008/wpp2008_text_tables.pdf. Retrieved 12 March 2009.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 "Turkmenistan". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2012/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=44&pr.y=15&sy=2009&ey=2012&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=925&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
  4. "Human Development Report 2011". United Nations. 2011. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2011_EN_Table1.pdf. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
  5. "Turkmenistan". Central Intelligence Agency - The World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/txq.html. Retrieved 2009-09-04.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Statistical Yearbook of Turkmenistan 2000-2004, National Institute of State Statistics and Information of Turkmenistan, Ashgabat, 2005.