1682 was a common year that started on a Thursday when using the Gregorian calendar.
March 11 – Chelsea hospital for soldiers is founded in England.
April 7 – René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, exploring rivers in America, reaches the mouth of the Mississippi River.
April 9 – At the mouth of the Mississippi River, near modern Venice, Louisiana, Robert de La Salle buries an engraved plate and a cross, claiming the territory as "La Louisiane" for France.
May 6 – Louis XIV of France moves his court to Versailles.
May 7 – Official beginning of the reign of Peter the Great.
May 11 – Moscow Uprising of 1682: a mob takes over the Kremlin and lynches the leading boyars and military commanders.
July 19 – Iyasus succeeds his father Yohannes I as Emperor of Ethiopia.
August 12 – Vesuvius begins a period of volcanic activity lasting for ten days.
September – Halley's comet makes an appearance, and is observed by Edmond Halley himself.
September 14 – Bishop Gore School in Swansea, Wales is founded.
October 27 – The city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania is founded by William Penn.
October 31 – The city of Bideford, England two men and one woman were some of the last to be executed for witchcraft in England. They were accused of speaking in unknown languages as well as practicing knowledge beyond their natural abilities, and acting in peculiar manners. The woman, Guenevere Damascus, as well as her lover (name unknown) and their spiritual mentor were burned at the stake.
February 25 – Alessandro Stradella, Italian composer (born 1644)
March 14 – Jacob Isaakszoon van Ruysdael, Dutch painter (born c. 1628)
April 1 – Franz Egon of Fürstenberg, Bishop of Strassburg (born 1625)
April 3 – Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, Spanish painter (born 1618)
May 7 – Tsar Feodor III of Russia (born 1661)
July 12 – Jean Picard, French astronomer (born 1620)
September 8 – Juan Caramuel y Lobkowitz, Spanish writer (born 1606)
October 19 – Sir Thomas Browne English writer, physician, and philosopher (born 1605)
November 19 – Prince Rupert of the Rhine, Royalist commander in the English Civil War (born 1619)
November 23 – Claude Lorrain French painter (born c. 1600)
date unknown Yohannes I, Emperor of Ethiopia
date unknown Turhan Hatice, regent of the Ottoman Empire (born 1627)