Babur

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Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur
ظهیرالدین محمد بابر
Babur of India.jpg
1st Mughal emperor
Reign1494 - 1497, 1498 - 1500 (Ferghana)
1504 - 1526 (Kabul)
1497-1498, 1500 - 1501, 1511 - 1512 (Samarkand)
1526 - 1530 (Delhi)
27 April 1526 – 26 December 1530
PredecessorIbrahim Lodi (as Sultan of Delhi)
SuccessorHumayun
Born(1483-02-14)14 February 1483
Timurid Empire (present-day Uzbekistan)
Died26 December 1530(1530-12-26) (aged 47)
Agra, Mughal Empire (present-day India)
BurialKabul, Bagh-e Babur (present-day Afghanistan)
SpouseAisha Sultan Begum
Zainab Sultan Begum
Maham Begum
Masuma Sultan Begum
Bibi Mubarika
Gulrukh Begum
Dildar Begum
Gulnar Aghacha
Nazgul Aghacha
IssueHumayun
Kamran Mirza
Askari Mirza
Hindal Mirza
Ahmad Mirza
Shahrukh Mirza
Barbul Mirza
Alwar Mirza
Faruq Mirza
Fakhr-un-Nissa Begum
Ishan Daulat Begum
Meher Jahan Begum
Masuma Sultan Begum
Gulzar Begum
Gulrukh Begum
Gulbadan Begum
Gulchehra Begum
Altun Bishik (alleged)
Full name
Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur
HouseTimurid dynasty
FatherUmar Sheikh Mirza, ʿAmīr of Fergana
MotherQutlugh Nigar Khanum
ReligionIslam

Babur, full name Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur (14 February 148326 December 1530) was founder of Mughal Empire in Indian subcontinent. He was eldest son of Umar Sheikh Mirza., governor of Farghana.

A portrait of Babur, from an early illustrated manuscript of the Baburnama 1589-90

Plans of the conquest of India[change | change source]

In 1525 Babur set out to attack and conquer India. He had only about twelve thousand men with him but he had been promised help by Daulat Khan Lodi, the governor of Punjab. They planned to march together against the ruling Sultan Ibrahim Lodi, who was the King of Delhi at that time. When Babur reached India, the government was afraid to help him, and eventually backed out, and so Babur started off to Delhi by himself with his small army of men.

Ibrahim Lodi was reported to have one hundred thousand men and one hundred elephants. But Babur had something which Ibrahim did not have – heavy guns and cannons, the first proper Turkic style artillery seen in medieval India. There were hardly any guns at that time in India and Babur had managed to get hold of some in Kabul. He had cannons and some firearms as well.

The two armies met at the famous First battle of Panipat, at a small village near Delhi. Both armies remained in position opposite each other for a week before the battle began. Babur was an excellent general and he planned the battle very carefully as conquering Delhi was indeed very important to him. After the battle about fifteen thousand men of the enemy were killed including their commander Ibrahim Lodi.

Before the enemy could recover from their defeat, Delhi was captured.

Consolidating victory[change | change source]

Babur had to fight more major battles, the battles of Khanua and Gogra. In 1527 A.D. he had to face a fierce enemy of his at Khanua, the Rajput hero, Rana Sangram (or Sanga)of Mewar. A ferocious battle was fought between the two in the field of Khanua and Babur won the battle.

In 1529 A.D., Babur got into a battle with the Afghans. Babur won, but the Afghans were not totally weakened. They joined hands with Mahmud Lodi, the brother of Ibrahim Lodi, to fight Babur again. But Babur approached forward and was a successful winner of this Battle in Gogra.

Related pages[change | change source]