Help:IPA/Russian

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Russian pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-ru}}.

Russian distinguishes hard (unpalatalized or plain) and soft (palatalized) consonants. Soft consonants, most of which are denoted by a superscript j, ⟨ʲ⟩, are pronounced with the body of the tongue raised toward the hard palate, like the articulation of the y sound in yes. /j, ɕː, tɕ/ are always soft, whereas /ʂ, ts, ʐ/ are always hard.

See Russian phonology and Russian alphabet for a more thorough look at the sounds of Russian.

Consonants
Hard Soft
IPA Examples English approximation IPA Examples English approximation
b audio speaker iconбок; апде́йт[1] boot audio speaker iconбе́лый beautiful
d audio speaker iconдать; audio speaker iconфутбо́л[1] do audio speaker iconде́ло; audio speaker iconходьба́; audio speaker iconжени́тьба[1] dew (UK)
f audio speaker iconфо́рма; audio speaker iconвы́ставка;[1] audio speaker iconбо́ров[2] fool audio speaker iconфина́л; audio speaker iconверфь; audio speaker iconкровь[2] few
ɡ audio speaker iconгод[3][4]; audio speaker iconанекдо́т[1] goo ɡʲ audio speaker iconгеро́й argue
N/A j audio speaker iconесть [je-]; audio speaker iconёж [jɵ-]; audio speaker iconюг [ju-]; audio speaker iconя [ja]; audio speaker iconмайо́р[5] yes, York, you, yard, boy
k audio speaker iconкость; audio speaker iconбе́гство[1]; audio speaker iconфлаг[2] scar audio speaker iconкино́; секью́рити skew
l audio speaker iconлуна́[6] pill audio speaker iconлес; audio speaker iconболь lean
m audio speaker iconмы́ло moot audio speaker iconмя́со; audio speaker iconсемь mute
n audio speaker iconнос noon audio speaker iconнёс; audio speaker iconдень; audio speaker iconко́нчик[7] newt (for some dialects)
p audio speaker iconпод; audio speaker iconры́бка[1]; audio speaker iconзуб[2] span audio speaker iconпе́пел; audio speaker iconцепь; audio speaker iconзыбь[2] spew
r audio speaker iconраз flapped or trilled r, like in Spanish audio speaker iconряд; audio speaker iconзверь flapped or trilled r, like in Spanish
s audio speaker iconсоба́ка; audio speaker iconска́зка[1]; audio speaker iconглаз[2] soup audio speaker iconси́ний; audio speaker iconздесь; audio speaker iconесть; audio speaker iconгрызть[1] assume, soup (for some dialects)
ʂ audio speaker iconширо́кий; audio speaker iconкни́жка[1]; audio speaker iconмуж[2]; audio speaker iconчто[8] rush ɕː audio speaker iconщека́; audio speaker iconсчита́ть; audio speaker iconмужчи́на[9][10] wish sheep
t audio speaker iconто; audio speaker iconво́дка;[1] audio speaker iconлёд[2] stand audio speaker iconтень; audio speaker iconдитя́; audio speaker iconпуть; audio speaker iconгрудь[2] stew (UK; for some dialects)
ts[11] audio speaker iconцена́; audio speaker iconнра́виться[10] cats [11] audio speaker iconчай; audio speaker iconтечь[10] chip
v audio speaker iconвы; его́[4]; афга́н[1] voodoo audio speaker iconвесь; audio speaker iconвью́га view
x audio speaker iconход; audio speaker iconБог[3][10] loch (Scottish) audio speaker iconхи́трый; Хью́стон; audio speaker iconлёгкий[1][3][10] huge (for some dialects)
z audio speaker iconзуб; audio speaker iconсбор[1] zoo audio speaker iconзима́; резьба́; audio speaker iconжизнь; audio speaker iconпро́сьба[1] presume (for some dialects)
ʐ audio speaker iconжест; волшба́[1] rouge ʑː audio speaker iconпо́зже[12] prestige genre
Stressed vowels
[-soft] [+soft]
IPA Examples English approximation IPA Examples English approximation
a audio speaker iconтрава́ father æ audio speaker iconпять; audio speaker iconча́сть[13] pat (US)
ɛ audio speaker iconжест; audio speaker iconэ́тот met e audio speaker iconпень; audio speaker iconэ́тика[13] penny
ɨ audio speaker iconты; audio speaker iconши́шка; с и́грами roses (for some dialects) i audio speaker iconли́ния; audio speaker iconи́ли meet
o audio speaker iconо́блако; audio speaker iconшёпот chore ɵ audio speaker iconтётя; audio speaker iconплечо́[13] bird (non-rhotic)
u audio speaker iconпу́ля boot ʉ audio speaker iconчуть; audio speaker iconлю́ди[13] choose
Unstressed vowels
[-soft] [+soft]
IPA Examples English approximation IPA Examples English approximation
ɐ audio speaker iconоблака́; audio speaker iconкако́й; audio speaker iconсообража́ть; audio speaker iconтропа́[14] bud N/A
ə audio speaker iconко́жа; audio speaker iconо́блако; audio speaker iconсе́рдце about ə audio speaker iconво́ля; audio speaker iconсего́дня; audio speaker iconку́ча[15] lasagna
ɨ audio speaker iconдыша́ть; audio speaker iconжена́; audio speaker iconво́ды; audio speaker iconэта́п; к Ива́ну roses (for some dialects) ɪ audio speaker iconлиса́; audio speaker iconчеты́ре; audio speaker iconтяжёлый; audio speaker iconде́вять; audio speaker iconчасы́[16] bit
ʊ audio speaker iconмужчи́на put ʉ audio speaker iconчуде́сный; audio speaker iconлюби́ть[13] youth
ɛ тетра́эдр; поэте́сса[17] met N/A
o audio speaker iconра́дио; поэте́сса[17] chore ɵ ма́чо; сёрфинги́ст[18] bird (non-rhotic)
Suprasegmental
IPA Example Explanation
ˈ audio speaker iconчеты́ре [tɕɪˈtɨrʲɪ] Stress mark, placed before the stressed syllable
ː audio speaker iconсза́ди [ˈzːadʲɪ][1] Consonant length mark, placed after the geminated consonant

Notes[change | change source]

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 Consonants in consonant clusters are assimilated in voicing if the final consonant in the sequence is an obstruent (except [v, vʲ]). All consonants become voiceless if the final consonant is voiceless or voiced if the final consonant is voiced (Halle 1959:31).
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 The voiced obstruents /b, bʲ, d, dʲ, ɡ, v, vʲ, z, zʲ, ʐ/ are devoiced word-finally unless the next word begins with a voiced obstruent (Halle 1959:22).
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 г⟩ is usually pronounced [ɣ] or [x] in some religious words and colloquial derivatives from them, such as audio speaker iconГо́споди and audio speaker iconБог, and in the interjections audio speaker iconага́, audio speaker iconого́, audio speaker iconго́споди, audio speaker iconей-бо́гу, and also in бухга́лтер [bʊˈɣaltʲɪr] (Timberlake 2004:23). /ɡ/ devoices and lenites to [x] before voiceless obstruents (dissimilation) in the word roots -мягк- or -мягч-, -легк- or -легч-, -тягч-, and also in the old-fashioned pronunciation of -ногт-, -когт-, кто. Speakers of the Southern Russian dialects may pronounce ⟨г⟩ as [ɣ] (soft [ɣʲ], devoiced [x] and []) throughout.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Intervocalic ⟨г⟩ represents /v/ in certain words (audio speaker iconсего́дня, audio speaker iconсего́дняшний, итого́ ), and in the genitive suffix -ого/-его (Timberlake 2004:23).
  5. The soft vowel letters ⟨е, ë, ю, я⟩ represent iotated vowels /je, jo, ju, ja/, except when following a consonant. When these vowels are unstressed (save for ⟨ë⟩, which is always stressed) and follow another vowel letter, the /j/ may not be present. The letter ⟨и⟩ produces iotated sound /ji/ only after ь.
  6. /l/ is often strongly pharyngealized [ɫ], but that feature is not distinctive (Ladefoged & Maddieson 1996:187-188).
  7. Alveo-palatal consonants are subjected to regressive assimilative palatalization; i.e. they tend to become palatalized in front of other phones with the same place of articulation.
  8. Most speakers pronounce ⟨ч⟩ in the pronoun что and its derivatives as [ʂ]. All other occurrences of чт cluster stay as affricate and stop.
  9. щ⟩ is sometimes pronounced as [ɕː] or [ɕɕ] and sometimes as [ɕtɕ], but no speakers contrast the two pronunciations. It is generally includes the other spellings of the sound, but the word счи́тывать sometimes has [ɕtɕ] because of the morpheme boundary between the prefix ⟨с-⟩ and the root ⟨-чит-⟩.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 [ts], [tɕ], [ɕː], [x], have voiced allophones, [dz], [], [ʑː], [ɣ] respectively, before voiced stop consonants. Examples: audio speaker iconплацда́рм, начди́в, audio speaker iconдочь бы, вещдо́к, трёхдне́вный.
  11. 11.0 11.1 The affricates [ts] and [tɕ] are sometimes written with ligature ties: [t͡s] and [t͡ɕ]. Ties are not used in transcriptions on Wikipedia (except in phonology articles) because they may not display correctly in all browsers.
  12. Geminated [ʐː] is pronounced as soft [ʑː], the voiced counterpart to [ɕː], in a few lexical items (such as дрожжи or заезжать) by conservative Moscow speakers; such realization is now somewhat obsolete (Yanushevskaya & Bunčić (2015:224)).
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 Vowels are fronted and/or raised in the context of palatalized consonants: /a/ and /u/ become [æ] and [ʉ], respectively between palatalized consonants, /e/ is realized as [e] before and between palatalized consonants and /o/ becomes [ɵ] after and between palatalized consonants.
  14. Word-initial and pretonic (before the stress) /a/ and /o/, as well as when in a sequence.
  15. Only in certain word-final morphemes (Timberlake 2004:48-51).
  16. Unstressed /a/ is pronounced as [ɪ] after ⟨ч⟩ and ⟨щ⟩ except when word-final.[source?]
  17. 17.0 17.1 In the careful style of pronunciation unstressed /e/ and /o/ in foreign words may be pronounced with little or no reduction.
  18. Unstressed [ɵ] only occurs in foreign words.

References[change | change source]

  • Cubberley, Paul (2002), "The phonology of Modern Russian", Russian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge University Press
  • Halle, Morris (1959), Sound Pattern of Russian, MIT Press
  • Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4.
  • Timberlake, Alan (2004), "Sounds", A Reference Grammar of Russian, Cambridge University Press
  • Yanushevskaya, Irena; Bunčić, Daniel (2015), "Russian" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 45 (2): 221–228, doi:10.1017/S0025100314000395