Voiced bilabial nasal

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Bilabial nasal
m
IPA number114
Encoding
Entity (decimal)m
Unicode (hex)U+006D
X-SAMPAm
Kirshenbaumm
Sound

 

The voiced bilabial nasal is a type of consonant. It is used in almost all spoken languages. The letter for this sound in the International Phonetic Alphabet is ⟨m⟩. The X-SAMPA symbol for this sound is ⟨m⟩. The English language has this sound, and it is the sound represented by "m" in map and rum.

Nearly all languages contain this sound. A few languages (for example, Mohawk) do not often use this sound.

Features[change | change source]

  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic. This means that this sound is produced by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
  • The phonation is voiced. This means that the vocal cords vibrate while the sound is being pronounced.
  • The place of articulation (where the sound is produced) is bilabial. This means that this sound is produced with both lips.
  • It is a nasal consonant. This means that air is allowed to escape through the nose, either exclusively (nasal stops) or in addition to through the mouth.

Examples[change | change source]

Language Word IPA Meaning
Arabic Standard[1] مطابخ [mɑˈtˤɑːbiχ] 'kitchens'
Catalan[2] mare [ˈmaɾə] 'mother'
Chinese Cantonese /maan5 [maːn˩˧] 'night'
Mandarin 母親/mǔqīn [mu˨˩ tɕʰin˥] 'mother'
Dutch[3] mond [mɔnt] 'mouth'
English him [hɪm] 'him'
Finnish minä [minæ] 'I'
French[4] manger [mɑ̃ʒe] 'to eat'
Georgian[5] სა [ˈsɑmi] 'three'
Greek[6] μάζα/maza [ˈmaza] 'clump'
Hawaiian[7] maka [maka] 'eye'
Indonesian[8] masuk [ˈmasuʔ] 'enter'
Italian[9] mamma [ˈmamma] 'mamma'
Japanese[10] 乾杯/kampai [kampai] 'a toast'
Malay malam [malam] 'night'
Malayalam[7] കമ്മി [kəmmi] 'shortage'
Polish[11] masa audio speaker icon[ˈmasa]  'mass'
Portuguese[12] mato [ˈmatu] 'bush'
Russian[13] муж [muʂ] 'husband'
Spanish[14] grumete [ɡɾuˈme̞te̞] 'cabin boy'
Vietnamese[15] muối [mwoj˧ˀ˥] 'salt'
Zapotec Tilquiapan[16] man [maŋ] 'animal'

References[change | change source]

  1. Thelwall, Robin (1990), "Illustrations of the IPA: Arabic", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 20 (2): 37
  2. Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (1–2): 53, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004618
  3. Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (2): 45, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X
  4. Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L (1993), "Illustrations of the IPA:French", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 23 (2): 73, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874
  5. Shosted, Ryan K.; Vakhtang, Chikovani (2006), "Standard Georgian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (2): 255, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002659
  6. Newton, Brian (1972), The generative Interpretation of Dialect: A Study of Modern Greek Phonology, Cabridge Studies in Linguistics, vol. 8, Cambridge University Press, p. 10
  7. 7.0 7.1 Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.), Blackwell, pp. 139, 165
  8. Soderberg, Craig D.; Olson, Kenneth S. (2008), "Illustrations of the IPA:Indonesian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 38 (2): 210
  9. Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 117, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628
  10. Okada, Hideo (1991), "Phonetic Representation:Japanese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 21 (2): 94
  11. Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (1): 103, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191
  12. Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 25 (2): 91, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223
  13. Padgett, Jaye (2003), "Contrast and Post-Velar Fronting in Russian", Natural Language & Linguistic Theory, 21 (1): 42, doi:10.1023/A:1021879906505
  14. Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 255, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373
  15. Thompson, Laurence (1959), "Saigon phonemics", Language, 35 (3): 458–461, doi:10.2307/411232, JSTOR 411232
  16. Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 38 (1): 108