Voiced alveolar lateral fricative

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Voiced alveolar lateral fricative
IPA number149
Entity (decimal)ɮ
Unicode (hex)U+026E


The voiced alveolar lateral fricative is a type of consonant. Some spoken languages use it. The letter for this sound in the International Phonetic Alphabet is ⟨ɮ⟩ (sometimes called lezh). The X-SAMPA symbol for this sound is K\. The voiced alveolar lateral fricative is not used in English.

Features[change | change source]

Examples[change | change source]

Dental or denti-alveolar[change | change source]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Amis Kangko accent Interdental [ɮ̪͆]

Alveolar[change | change source]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Adyghe къалэ audio speaker icon[qaːɮa]  'town' Can also be pronounced as [l]
Bura[1] [example needed] Contrasts with [ɬ] and [ʎ̝̊].[1]
Kabardian блы audio speaker icon[bɮə]  'seven' Can also be pronounced as [l]
Ket [example needed]
Mongolian монгол [mɔŋɢɔ̆ɮ] 'Mongol' Sometimes realized as [ɬ]
Sassarese caldhu audio speaker icon[ˈkaɮdu]  'hot'
Tera[2] dlepti [ɮè̞pti] 'planting'
Zulu[3] indlala [ínˈɮàlà] 'hunger'

A pharyngealized voiced alveolar lateral fricative audio speaker icon[ɮˤ]  is reconstructed to be the ancient Classical Arabic pronunciation of the Arabic letter Ḍād. (This means that linguists do not know how the letter was actually pronounced. However, by looking at modern languages, they think that this is how it was pronounced in the ancient language.) Today, the letter is pronounced in Modern Standard Arabic as a pharyngealized voiced coronal stop. This sound can be either alveolar [] or denti-alveolar [d̪ˤ].

Notation[change | change source]

Former IPA letter for the voiced alveolar lateral fricative

In 1938, a letter shaped similarly to heng⟩ was approved as the official IPA letter for this sound. It replaced ⟨ɮ⟩. However, the International Phonetic Association also suggested that a compromise between the two letters could be used if the author wanted. This compromise letter was included in the 1949 Principles of the International Phonetic Association and the IPA charts of that year. Although the International Phonetic Association said to use this letter, some authors still used ⟨ɮ⟩ from the 1960s to the 1980s.[4][5][6][7][8] Later, this new letter was replaced by ⟨ɮ⟩ at the 1989 Kiel Convention.[9]

Related pages[change | change source]

Notes[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Grønnum (2005), pp. 154–155.
  2. Tench (2007), p. 228.
  3. Ladefoged (2005), p. 170.
  4. Newman, Paul (1964). "A word list of Tera". Journal of West African Languages. 1 (2): 33–50.
  5. Catford, J. C.; Ladefoged, Peter (1968). Working Papers in Phonetics 11: Practical Phonetic Exercises. University of California, Los Angeles.
  6. Brosnahan, L. F.; Malmberg, Bertil (1970). Introduction to Phonetics. Cambridge University Press. p. 105. ISBN 0-521-21100-X.
  7. Ladefoged, Peter (1971). Preliminaries to Linguistic Phonetics. University of Chicago Press. p. 54. ISBN 0-226-46787-2.
  8. MacKay, Ian (1987). Phonetics: The Science of Speech Production (2nd ed.). Little, Brown and Company. p. 106. ISBN 0-316-54238-5.
  9. Wells, John (3 November 2006). "The symbol ɮ". John Wells’s phonetic blog. Department of Phonetics and Linguistics, University College London. Retrieved 1 February 2018.

References[change | change source]