Voiced bilabial implosive

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Voiced bilabial implosive
{{Bold text{ipa symbol|}}}
IPA number160
Entity (decimal)ɓ
Unicode (hex)U+0253


A voiced bilabial implosive is a type of consonant used in some spoken languages. The letter for this sound in the International Phonetic Alphabet is ⟨ɓ⟩. The X-SAMPA letter for this sound is b_<.

Features[change | change source]

Features of the voiced bilabial implosive:

  • The manner of articulation (how the sound is produced) is stop, or plosive. This means that this sound is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. (The term plosive contrasts with nasal stops, where the blocked airflow is redirected through the nose.)
  • The place of articulation (where the sound is produced) is bilabial. This means that this sound is produced with both lips.
  • The phonation is voiced. This means that the vocal cords vibrate while the sound is being pronounced.
  • It is an oral consonant. This means that air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • This sound is not produced with air flowing over the tongue. So, the centrallateral dichotomy is not suitable.
  • The airstream mechanism is implosive (also called glottalic ingressive). This means that this sound is produced by pushing the glottis downward. This pulls air inward. The glottis is not completely closed, but a pulmonic airstream is allowed to escape through it, which makes the sound.

Examples[change | change source]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Ega[1] [ɓá] 'send away'
English Southern American[2] boy [ɓɔɪ̯] 'boy' This is one way /b/ can be pronounced at the start of a word.[2] See English phonology
Fula[3] fulɓe
[fulɓe] 'Fulbe person' (g.)
Goemai as [ɓas] 'to fetch'
Hausa ɓaɓewa [ɓaɓɛua] 'quarreling'
Jamaican Patois[4] beat [ɓiːt] 'beat' Allophone of /b/ at the beginning of prominent syllables.
Kalabari[5] á [ɓá] 'kill'
Khmer បារាំង / barăng [ɓaːraŋ] noun: 'France'
adjective: 'French'
See Khmer phonology
Latundê[6] [ˌɓa:ˈnãn] '(they) are two' One of the ways /p/ can be pronounced.[6]
Southern Nambikwara[7] [ɓa̰h] 'ask excuse' One of the ways /p/ can be pronounced.[7]
Mayan Yucatec balam [ɓalam] 'jaguar'
Mono[8] ‘balœ [ɓálə́] 'at'
Paumarí[9] 'bo'da [ɓoɗa] 'old'
Seereer-Siin[10] ɓood [ɓoːd] 'to crawl' Contrasts phonemically with the voiceless bilabial implosive. (When two sounds contrast, it means that the two sounds are different in that language, and changing the sound can change what the word means.)
Saraiki[11] ٻال [ɓɑː.l] 'child'
Sindhi ٻر [ɓaˑrʊ]
Tera[12] ɓala [ɓala] 'to talk' Contrasts phonemically with palatalized implosive, /ɓʲ/
Tukang Besi [aɓa] 'previous'
Vietnamese[13] bạn [ɓan̪˧ˀ˨ʔ] 'you' See Vietnamese phonology
Zulu ubaba [úˈɓàːɓá] 'my father'

Related pages[change | change source]

Notes[change | change source]

  1. Connell, Ahoua & Gibbon (2002:100)
  2. 2.0 2.1 Wells (1982:489)
  3. Keer (1999:82)
  4. Devonish & Harry (2004:456)
  5. Harry (2003:113)
  6. 6.0 6.1 Telles (2013:298)
  7. 7.0 7.1 Netto (2018:105, 106)
  8. Olson (2004:233)
  9. Everett (2003:23)
  10. Mc Laughlin (2005:203)
  11. Bashir, Elena; J. Conners, Thomas (2019). "". A Descriptive Grammar of Hindko, Panjabi, and Saraiki. Vol. 4 of Mouton-CASL Grammar Series. Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG. p. 28. ISBN 9781614512257. Saraiki has four voiced implosive stops: bilabial /ɓ/, alveolar /ɗ/, palatal /ʄ/, and velar /ɠ/.
  12. Tench (2007:228)
  13. Thompson (1959:458–461)

References[change | change source]

  • Connell, Bruce; Ahoua, Firmin; Gibbon, Dafydd (2002), "Ega", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 32 (1): 99–104, doi:10.1017/S002510030200018X
  • Devonish, H.; Harry, Otelamate G. (2004), "Jamaican phonology", in Kortman, B; Shneider E. W. (eds.), A Handbook of Varieties of English, phonology, vol. 1, Berlin: Mouton De Gruyter, pp. 441–471
  • Everett, Daniel L. (2003), "Iambic Feet in Paumari and the Theory of Foot Structure", Linguistic Discovery, 2 (1), doi:10.1349/ps1.1537-0852.a.263, ISSN 1537-0852
  • Harry, Otelamate G. (2003), "Kalaḅarị-Ịjo", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (1): 113–120, doi:10.1017/S002510030300121X
  • Keer, Edward (1999), Geminates, The OCP and The Nature of CON, Rutgers University
  • Mc Laughlin, Fiona (2005), "Voiceless implosives in Seereer-Siin", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 35 (2): 201–214, doi:10.1017/S0025100305002215, S2CID 145717014
  • Olson, Kenneth S. (2004), "Mono" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (2): 233–238, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001744
  • Tench, Paul (2007), "Tera", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 37 (1): 228–234, doi:10.1017/s0025100307002952
  • Thompson, Laurence (1959), "Saigon phonemics", Language, 35 (3): 454–476, doi:10.2307/411232, JSTOR 411232
  • Wells, John C. (1982), Accents of English, vol. 3: Beyond the British Isles, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-24225-8
  • Netto, Luiz (2018), Fonologia do grupo Nambikwára do Campo (Master's dissertation) (in Brazilian Portuguese), Recife: Federal University of Pernambuco, pp. 105, 106
  • Telles, Stella (2013), "Traços laringais em Latundê (Nambikwára do Norte)", Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas (in Brazilian Portuguese), 8 (2), Belém: 291–306, doi:10.1590/S1981-81222013000200005