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Hun (clan)

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Hun[1][2][3][4] or Huna[5] is a major ancient Kshatriya[1] clan of the Gurjar community of Pakistan, Afghanistan, and India. Historically, they were also known by the name of Huna.[5] Hun Gujjars are primarily Hindu, while some are Muslim in Muslim-majority areas especially in Kashmir and Pakistan. In mountainous areas, they speak the Gujari language, as well as other indigenous dialects. In past these Hun Gurjars ruled in various dynasties.They are also mentioned in the Sanskrit epic of Mahabharat as the Huna[6] and Hara Huna.[7] According to a number of scholars, the Agnikula class were originally Gurjaras in which the Chauhans were a prominent clan of Gurjaras (or Gurjars)[8][9][10]

History[change | change source]

Pre-history[change | change source]

Huns are mentioned in a number of ancient Indian religious or historic Sanskrit or Vedic texts as Hara Huna[7] (Hada Huna), Huna,[6][5] or Huns, including the Puranas[11] and Mahabharata, and even in historic records of the Guptas of Patna[12] and Palas of Bengal.[13]

According to Gopi Nath Sharma Gurjars and Huns are mentioned in the Hindu scripture Puranas along with other beloved to be foreign tribes of Indian subcontinent.[11]

During the regime of the Gurjar pratihar dynasty and its emperor, the Mihir Bhoj Gurjar Huns Gujjars were ruling in the Mianwali district of the Punjab province, which is located in present-day Pakistani Punjab.[14]

They fought the Patliputra Guptas and the Qanauj Wardhans. They ascended to power in the sixth century A.D. from Upper Panjab, led by Torman and his son Mihir Kul, and conquered Kashmir. Emperor Mihir Kul died in 540 CE.[14]

After his death came Matri Gita (540 to 583 A.D.), Hirani (583 to 606), Torman 11 (606 to 643), Suresh Sen (643 to 667), Ksheti Nand (667 to 687 A.D.), Vasu Deva (687 to 711 A.D.), Yudhistra (711 to 729 A.D.), Raja Iksa (729 to 750 A.D.), Gopi Ditta (750 to 767 A.D.), Gai Karan (767 to 809 A.D.), Narendra Ditta (809 to 845 A.D.), Torman II (845 to 847 A.D.), and Lakhan (847 to 860 A.D.). The last five were local chiefs who were subjected to Thakyas (Taanks) of Taank kingdom. These Huns claimed descent from the Yadavas. The Sialkot city of present-day Pakistani Punjab was their capital. Rheir marriage relationships with the other Gurjjars families demonstrate that they belonged to the Gurjar Kshatriya group. They are known as Gurjars, and Hun is their gotra (clan) even now.[14]

Descendants of Hun-Gurjars[change | change source]

Chalukyas[change | change source]

Pulakesin I formed the first notable Chalukya dynasty of southern India in the middle of the sixth century. These Chalukyas were descended from a foreign tribe, most likely a mix of Gurjara-Hun. Badami, in the Bijapur district, was their capital.[15]

Origin[change | change source]

According to Kulbhushan warikoo Some Huns claim to be descended from the Yuechi or Kushans. The Kushan and Hun were unquestionably Kshatriyas Gujjars. Both of these clans are only found among the Gurjars of Central and South Asia. Cunningham and other historians have also referred to them as Gurjars as well.[16]

Distribution[change | change source]

They live in Pakistani regions including Kashmir, and Punjab and Gilgit-Baltistan they have their population mostly in these areas. Some Hun Gujjars have villages in Afghanistan in the region of Pamir and Nuristan.

While in India they primarily inhabit in the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh and, Jammu and Kashmir. There are many village of Hun Gujjars in Uttar Pradesh، Rajasthan and Haryana. Alone in Uttar Pradesh their prominent villages are in the Meerut, Gaziabad,[5] Bulandhshahr, and Greater Noida districts. And most famous village due to their influence is known as 'Nawalka.[2]

Other names[change | change source]

In various regions they also known by different names, including, Huna,[5] Hara Huna, Hada Huna, Hun[3] or Hoon.[2]

Subclans[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Warikoo, Kulbhushan; Som, Sujit (2000). Gujjars of Jammu and Kashmir. Indira Gandhi Rashtriya Manav Sangrahalaya. p. 6. Some Huns claim to be Kushans . Kushan and Hun undoubtedly were Kshatriyas . Both the sub – castes are among the Gurjars . General Cunningham and others historians have mentioned them as Gurjars.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Khari, Rahul (2007). Jats and Gujars: Origin, History and Culture. Reference Press. p. 85. ISBN 978-81-8405-031-8. Hoon or Hun is a clan found amongst Gujars in several villages in Meerut . Hoon or Hun is a clan that is found amongst Gujars only in India . Their villages are found near Meerut and the most famous village is ' Nawalka ' . Gujar clans ..
  3. 3.0 3.1 Dass, Arvind (2002). Caste System: Caste commentaries and documentation. Dominant Publishers and Distributors. p. 109. ISBN 978-81-7888-029-7. The Gujar have families of more than one gotra. The predominance of the Hun gotra is quite significant. In this caste Ghasi Patel is very influential. He has now been elected a member of the new Panchayat.
  4. The Anthropologist: volume 12. Department of Anthropology, University of Dehli. 1966. p. 35. Hun still is the name of a Gujars sect (clan). The Jat tribes also entered India and at present they live in Delhi , Punjab.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Others, Muzaffar H. Syed & (2022-02-20). History of Indian Nation : Ancient India. K.K. Publications. p. 133. The Gurjara clan appeared in northern India about the time of the Huna invasions of northern India, and later established a number of ruling dynasties in northern India, including the Pratiharas of Kanauj... However, Huna is one of the prominent gotras (clan) among Gurjars and many Huna (Gurjar) villages can still be found in Ghaziabad and Bulandshahr.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Kumāra, Braja Bihārī (2007). India and Central Asia: Classical to Contemporary Periods. Concept Publishing Company. p. 4. ISBN 978-81-8069-457-8. There is mention of Shakas, Pahlavas (Persians), Kambojas (Galcha speaking people of Tazikistan), Rishik (Yueh-chi or Kushanas) at one place in the Mahabharata (5.4.15). At another place, China, Huna and Shaka is mentioned (Mahabharat 2.47.19). Kanka (Kangyu of Sogd) are mentioned with Shaka and Tushara (Tokharian). Enough material on Central Asia is available in Medieval Sanskrit literature, and in Buddhist and Jain literatures.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Nyamdavaa, Oidov (2003). Mongolia-India Relations. Bhavana Books & Prints. p. 3. ISBN 978-81-86505-61-8. It has been suggested that the word HARA stands for the old Persian word , Karamir or Kharamir which means " red " or deep colour. In other words , the HARAHUNA means " red Huna wich referred to the Harahuna in the Mahabharata...
  8. Sir Jervoise Athelstane Baines (1912). Ethnography: castes and tribes, Volume 2,Part 5. K.J. Trübner. p. 31. sun and fire worshiping huna or Gurjara was converted into the blue blood of rajputana, and became the forefathers of the Sisodia, Chahaun, Parmar, Parihar or calukya,..
  9. Hoernle, A. F. Rudolf (October 1904). "Some Problems of Ancient Indian History". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. XXIII. Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland: 651. Retrieved 2011-12-16. By that marriage Haarsha had contracted an alliance with the dominant race of the Gurjaras, of whom the Chohans were a prominent clan.
  10. Sharma, Dasharatha (1975). Early Chauhān dynasties: a study of Chauhān political history, Chauhān political institutions, and life in the Chauhān dominions, from 800 to 1316 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 280. ISBN 978-0-8426-0618-9. According to a number of scholars, the Agnikula class were originally Gurjaras.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Sharma, Gopi Nath (1970). Rajasthan Studies. Lakshmi Narain Agarwal. p. 15. Huns and Gujars have been mentioned along with other foreign tribes in the Puranas, the Gujars like Huns are also ...
  12. Chatterjee, Suhas (1998). Indian Civilization and Culture. M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. p. 224. ISBN 978-81-7533-083-2.
  13. Rahi, Javaid (2012-01-01). The Gujjars Vol: 01 and 02 Edited by Dr. Javaid Rahi. Jammu and Kashmir Acacademy of Art, Culture , Languages , Jammu. p. 294.
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 Rahi, Javaid (2012-01-01). The Gujjars Vol: 01 and 02 Edited by Dr. Javaid Rahi. Jammu and Kashmir Acacademy of Art, Culture , Languages , Jammu. p. 293.
  15. Mahmud, Sayyid Fayyaz (1988). A Concise History of Indo-Pakistan. Oxford University Press. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-19-577385-9. ...reigned originally in Badami, where Pulakesin I established a small kingdom in the sixth century. The ancestors of Pulakesin belonged to the Gurjara-Hun mixed race...
  16. Warikoo, Kulbhushan; Som, Sujit (2000). Gujjars of Jammu and Kashmir. Indira Gandhi Rashtriya Manav Sangrahalaya. p. 6. Some Huns claim to be Kushans . Kushan and Hun undoubtedly were Kshatriyas . Both the sub – castes are among the Gurjars . The General Cunningham and some others historians have mentioned them as Gurjars.
  17. Rahi, Javaid (2012-01-01). The Gujjars Vol: 01 and 02 Edited by Dr. Javaid Rahi. Jammu and Kashmir Acacademy of Art, Culture , Languages , Jammu. p. 373. N.B. There is a tribe Ja-vula among the Gurjars (S.C. page 130) Torman Javula was called Hun due to his tyranny. The Ja-vula rulers of Delhi adopted the title Tomar (the brave). This Hun family and Tomar family were two branches of Ja-vula Gurjars.