John Wilkes Booth
John Wilkes Booth (May 10, 1838 – April 26, 1865) was an American actor who shot U.S. president Abraham Lincoln on April 14, 1865, in Washington, D.C. Lincoln died the next morning. Booth was born in Bel Air, Harford County, Maryland to English immigrant parents. He was a very well-known stage actor who supported the Confederacy during the American Civil War. He was angry with Lincoln for supporting voting rights for former slaves, and he hoped to rally the remaining Confederate troops to keep fighting the war, which was coming to an end. Booth was chased by United States soldiers and killed at a farm in Virginia 12 days after the assassination.
Booth's political activity[change | change source]
Booth became politically active in the 1850s, joining the Know-Nothing Party, a group that wanted fewer immigrants to come to the United States. Booth strongly supported slavery. In 1859, he joined a Virginia company that helped with the capture of John Brown after his raid on Harpers Ferry. Booth watched Brown's execution.
During the Civil War, Booth worked as a Confederate secret agent. He met frequently with the heads of the Secret Service, Jacob Thompson and Clement Clay, in Montreal.
Failed plots against President Lincoln[change | change source]
In the summer of 1864, Booth began making plans to kidnap Abraham Lincoln. The plan called for Lincoln to be taken south to Richmond, where he would be held until traded for Confederate prisoners-of-war. Booth recruited friends and known southern-sympathizers for his mission, including the eight persons tried by the 1865 military commission. Some who resisted his persuasive efforts, such as actor Samuel Chester, became key government witnesses in the trial.
On March 4, 1865, Booth attended Lincoln's second inauguration as President, as can be seen in photographs taken that day. On March 15, Booth and most of his fellow conspirators met at a restaurant three blocks from Ford's Theatre to plan the kidnapping. Soon thereafter, Booth heard that the President would be attending a matinee performance of Still Waters Run Deep on March 17 at the Campbell Hospital on the outskirts of Washington. This, he decided, would the perfect opportunity for a kidnapping and—according to John Surratt—Booth developed a plan to intercept Lincoln's carriage en route to the play. Booth's plans were stopped, however, when the President changed his plans and decided instead to speak to the 140th Indiana Regiment and present a captured flag.
Booth's next plan was to kidnap the President at a future performance at Ford's Theatre (where the actor had several friends). This plan failed to win the support of some of his co-conspirators, who dismissed it as unworkable.
The assassination of Lincoln[change | change source]
After the fall of the Confederate capital at Richmond (April 4) and General Lee's large-scale surrender of Confederate forces (April 9), Booth decided to assassinate Lincoln instead of kidnapping him. According to Booth's former friend, Louis Weichmann, Booth may have made the decision to kill the President after hearing Lincoln deliver a speech on April 11 urging Negro suffrage. Weichmann spoke of his viewing of the President's speech with Booth:
- "I had never seen Mr. Lincoln up close and I knew he was a tall man, however nothing could have prepared me for the sight of him. A long shadow did he have. And his arms, when at his sides, touched near his knees. Very professionally he said that there would never be any suffrage based on differences in the way people look. Upon this, Booth turned to the two of us and said, “That means nigger citizenship. Now by God I’ll put him through!”
On April 14, 1865, while picking up his mail at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C., Booth discovered that Lincoln would be attending a play with his wife there that evening. Booth knew the play well. Booth met with his co-conspirators and established a plan to kill President Lincoln, Vice-President Johnson, Secretary of State Seward, and possibly General Grant—all around 10:15 that evening. That afternoon Booth prepared a peep hole into the balcony room the Presidential party would use. During the play, Booth quietly entered the unguarded balcony room. At 10:15 pm, following a line in the play he knew would get a laugh, Booth fired a pistol at point-blank range into the back of Lincoln's head. Booth escaped by jumping from the balcony onto the stage, where he shouted a triumphant line to the audience. He broke his leg during the jump, but escaped out the back door and onto his horse.
The mortally wounded Lincoln was carried across the street to Petersen House, where he died the next morning. One co-conspirator did attack Secretary of State Seward with a knife the night of the 14th, but Seward survived the attack. The conspirator who planned to attack Vice-President Johnson did not follow through with the plot.
Booth fled with an accomplice south through Maryland to Virginia. An army troop caught up with him on April 26. His accomplice surrendered but Booth refused. He died from shots fired during his capture.
Other websites[change | change source]
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