Mary I of England
|Queen of England and Ireland|
|Reign||19 July 1553 – 17 November 1558|
|Coronation||30 October 1553|
|Predecessor||Jane (disputed) or Edward VI|
|Queen consort of Spain|
|Tenure||16 January 1556 – 17 November 1558|
18 February 1516|
Palace of Placentia, Greenwich
|Died||17 November 1558
St. James's Palace, London
|Burial||14 December 1558
Westminster Abbey, London
|Spouse||Philip II of Spain|
|House||House of Tudor|
|Father||Henry VIII of England|
|Mother||Catherine of Aragon|
Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen regnant of England and Ireland from 19 July 1553 until her death. She was the oldest daughter of Henry VIII, and the only child of Catherine of Aragon who grew up.
Mary succeeded her short-lived half-brother, Edward VI, to the English throne. She was the fourth crowned monarch of the Tudor dynasty. Mary is remembered for briefly re-making England a Roman Catholic country.
Mary had almost 300 disagreeing religious people burned at the stake, which are recorded in John Foxe's Book of Martyrs. Due to this, many called her "Bloody Mary". When her half-sister, Elizabeth I, came to the throne after Mary's death, she made England Protestant again.
Life[change | change source]
Mary Tudor was born on 18 February 1516, in the Palace of Placentia in Greenwich. Unlike the other children of Catherine, she lived to be an adult. Her godfather was the famous Cardinal Thomas Wolsey.
Although she was not the heir Henry VIII was looking for, she was loved by her parents. When she was about 11, Henry decided to divorce Mary's mother, Catherine of Aragon, so he could marry Anne Boleyn.
After Anne Boleyn had a daughter, Mary had to become one of her servants. After Anne Boleyn was killed by the King, Mary's half-sister also became a servant. A month later, Henry VIII married Jane Seymour. Queen Jane gave birth to Edward, Prince of Wales. 12 days later, Queen Jane died.
Mary lost a faithful friend and also her pride. She had acknowledged her parents' marriage as invalid and herself an illegitimate daughter. The rest of Mary's life with Henry VIII gave her a quick succession of stepmothers. Henry VIII died soon after marrying his last wife, Catherine Parr.
Henry had decided that the young prince was to succeed him. If he had no heirs then his older half-sister, Mary, was to be Queen.
If Mary did not produce a child, then the Mary's half-sister, Elizabeth, was to be Queen. After Elizabeth and her heirs, would come Henry's sister Mary Tudor's side of the family.
Edward succeeded to the throne as King of England and Ireland. Edward began to show signs of a coughing disease.
Edward did not want Mary to succeed him. Edward went ahead with a plan to let his Protestant cousin Lady Jane Grey become Queen after he died. Lady Jane Grey was only queen of England for nine days. Mary executed Jane Grey and married Philip II of Spain.
Mary had two phantom pregnancies, but had no child. The phantom pregnancies were cancer in her liver. After Mary died Elizabeth succeeded to the throne, becoming the new Queen Elizabeth I of England.
References[change | change source]
- The Gentleman's magazine. F. Jefferies. 1886. p. 233.
- "Catholic Encyclopedia: Mary Tudor". newadvent.org. Retrieved 27 May 2010.