National Democratic Alliance

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National Democratic Alliance
AbbreviationNDA
ChairpersonAmit Shah
(Home Minister)
Lok Sabha leaderNarendra Modi
(Prime Minister)
Rajya Sabha leaderThawar Chand Gehlot
(Minister of Social Justice and Empowerment)
FounderL. K. Advani and Atal Bihari Vajpayee
(Bharatiya Janata Party)
Founded1998
Political positionCentre-right to right-wing
ECI StatusNational Alliance
Seats in Lok Sabha
333 / 543
Seats in Rajya Sabha
118 / 245
Seats in State Legislative AssembliesSee § Strength in legislative assemblies

The National Democratic Alliance (NDA) is an Indian political alliance. It made up of center-right and right-wing political parties and led by the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). It was founded in 1998. It currently controls the Indian union government as well as the government of 18 Indian states.

Its first chairman was Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee. L. K. Advani, the former Deputy Prime Minister, took over as chairman in 2004 and served until 2014. Afetr that, Amit Shah has been the chairman since 2014. The coalition ruled from 1998 to 2004. The alliance returned to power in the 2014 general elections with a combined vote share of 38.5%.[1] Its leader, Narendra Modi, was sworn in as Prime Minister of India on 26 May 2014. In the 2019 general election, the alliance further increased its tally to 353 seats with combined vote share of 45.43%.[2]

History[change | change source]

First Prime Minister from NDA, Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Prime Minister Narendra Modi

The NDA was formed in May 1998 as a coalition to contest the general elections. The main aim of the NDA was to form a anti-Congress coalition. It was led by the BJP, and included several regional parties, including the Samta Party and the AIADMK, as well as Shiv Sena, the only member which shared the Hindutva ideology of the BJP.[3][4] After the election, it was able to muster a slim majority with outside support from the Telugu Desam Party, allowing Atal Bihari Vajpayee to return as prime minister.[5]

The government collapsed within a year because the AIADMK withdrew its support. After the entry of a few more regional parties, the NDA proceeded to win the 1999 elections with a larger majority. Vajpayee became Prime Minister for a third time, and this time served a full five-year term.[6]

The NDA called elections in early 2004, six months ahead of schedule. Its campaign was based around the slogan of "India Shining" which attempted to depict the NDA government. It responsible for a rapid economic transformation of the country. However, the NDA suffered a defeat. They won with only a 186 seats in the Lok Sabha, compared to the 222 of the United Progressive Alliance led by the Congress, with Manmohan Singh. Singh has succeeded Vajpayee as prime minister. Commentators have argued that the NDA's defeat was due to a failure to reach out to the rural masses.[7][8]

Structure[change | change source]

The National Democratic Alliance does not have a formal governing structure such as an executive board or politburo. It has been up to the leaders of the individual parties to make decisions on issues such as sharing of seats in elections, allocation of ministries and the issues that are raised in Parliament. Given the varied ideologies among the parties, there have been many cases of disagreement and split voting among the allies.

Owing to ill health, George Fernandes, who was the NDA convener until 2008, was discharged of his responsibility. He replaced by Sharad Yadav, the then national president of the JD(U) party. On 16 June 2013, the JD(U) left the coalition and Sharad Yadav resigned from the role of the NDA convener. Then the CM of Andhra Pradesh Chandrababu Naidu was made the NDA convener.[9]

On 27 July 2017 JD(U) with the help of BJP formed the government in Bihar. Later, on 19 August 2017 JD(U) formally rejoined the NDA after 4 years.[10]

Strength in parliament[change | change source]


Members of the National Democratic Alliance
Party MPs in Lok Sabha MPs in Rajya Sabha[11] Party Status
1 Bharatiya Janata Party 302 93 National Party
2 All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 1 9 Tamil Nadu
3 Janata Dal (United) 16 5 Bihar
4 Republican Party of India (A) - 1 Maharashtra
5 Lok Janshakti Party 6 - Bihar
6 Asom Gana Parishad - 1 Assam
7 Apna Dal (Sonelal) 2 - Uttar Pradesh
8 National People's Party 1 1 Meghalaya
9 Pattali Makkal Katchi - 1 Tamil Nadu
10 Tamil Maanila Congress - 1 Tamil Nadu
11 All Jharkhand Students Union 1 - Jharkhand
12 Nationalist Democratic Progressive Party 1 - Nagaland
13 Mizo National Front 1 1 Mizoram
14 Sikkim Krantikari Morcha 1 - Sikkim
15 Independent 1 1 None
16 Nominated - 4 None
Total 333 118 India


Current governments[change | change source]

  BJP (12)
  Coalition with BJP (6)
  INC (4)
  Coalition with INC (2)
  Other Parties (AAP, AITC, BJD, TRS, YSRCP, CPI(M))
  President's Rule (1)
  Without Legislature (5)

As of March 2020, the BJP holds a majority of Legislative Assembly in 12 states - Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Goa, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand. In Haryana, BJP shares power as the senior partner (Chief Minister of BJP) with Jannayak Janta Party.

References[change | change source]

  1. "BJP's 31% lowest vote share of any party to win majority". Archived from the original on 14 June 2018. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  2. Ramani, Srinivasan (23 May 2019). "Analysis: Highest-ever national vote share for the BJP" – via www.thehindu.com.
  3. Keith Jones (9 October 1999). "Hindu chauvinist-led coalition to form India's next government". World Socialist Web Site. Archived from the original on 24 October 2013. Retrieved 27 September 2013. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  4. Sen, Amartya (2005). The Argumentative Indian. Penguin. p. 254.
  5. "Rediff on the NeT: TDP helps Vajpayee wins confidence vote. BJP alliance with TDP for a short time for the domestic actionable need 2010 reflected with mass protest against TDP". Rediff.com. Archived from the original on 22 June 2018. Retrieved 4 January 2011. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  6. Sen, Amartya (2005). The Argumentative Indian. Penguin.
  7. Ramesh, Randeep (14 May 2004). "News World news Shock defeat for India's Hindu nationalists". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 10 December 2013. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  8. Editorial (14 May 2004). "The Meaning of Verdict 2004". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 30 November 2011. Retrieved 10 December 2013. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  9. "Live: It was time to remove Cong from Centre, not to break ties, says Rajnath". IBN Live. 16 June 2013. Archived from the original on 5 May 2014. Retrieved 5 May 2014. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  10. "Nitish Kumar-led JD(U) passes resolution to join NDA". The Economy Times. 19 August 2017. Archived from the original on 21 August 2017. Retrieved 19 August 2017.
  11. "STRENGTHWISE PARTY POSITION IN THE RAJYA SABHA". Rajya Sabha. 18 July 2018. Archived from the original on 6 June 2017. Retrieved 22 May 2020.