||This article needs more sources for reliability. (September 2009)|
|National Socialist German Workers' Party
Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei
|Leader||Karl Harrer (1919–1920)
Anton Drexler (1920–1921)
Adolf Hitler (1921–1945)
Martin Bormann (1945)
|Preceded by||German Workers' Party (DAP)|
|Succeeded by||None (banned)
Ideologies continued with neo-Nazism
|Youth wing||Hitler Youth|
|Paramilitary wing||Sturmabteilung (SA)|
|Membership||Fewer than 60 in 1920
8.5 million by 1945
|Political position||Syncretic (officially)|
|Colors||Black, white, red (Imperial Germany's colors); brown|
The Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Workers' Party, NSDAP), also known as the Nazi Party, was a German political party. It was started in 1920 from the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (German Workers' party) (DAP). which would later be renamed NSDAP. On the day of its founding, the party published its 25 point manifesto (book of ideas). The items in this list of ideas included getting rid of the Treaty of Versailles, gaining more land for the German people, confiscating any income not earned through working, taking away citizenship from Jewish people, reforming the education system, enacting freedom of religion except for religions that weakened the German nation, and setting up a strong central German government. Until 1923, the party was most popular in Bavaria.
In 1923, Adolf Hitler and Erich Ludendorff tried to start a coup d'etat in Munich to take over Germany, but they failed. This battle was called the Beer Hall Putsch. Hitler was given five years in prison for high treason, however he only served 9 months. This is a very small sentence. Other people were given the death penalty. The NSDAP was also banned. While he was in prison, Adolf Hitler wrote most of Mein Kampf (My Struggle). In this book he wrote down his political ideas and his future plans for Germany.
In 1924, Hitler was released early from prison. He restarted the NSDAP. He wanted to gain power legally by elections. The next elections to the Reichstag were in 1928. Until then, the NSDAP was only one of a few nationalist, parties from the extreme right. There were many other parties with similar ideas then. Among people supporting the party were Fritz Thyssen and Emil Kirdorf, both leaders of big industries.
In the 1928 election, the party won 2.6 percent of the vote. The party decided to reduce antisemitic slogans, in order to do better next time. The party focused on terrorising the people, as well as more on international policy, and got around 10 % of the vote in local elections in 1929 and 1930.
In 1930, President Paul von Hindenburg dissolved the Reichstag. This was seen as an opportunity for the NSDAP. In the elections on September 14, 1930, the NSDAP won 18.3% of the vote, and was the second biggest party. What people wanted was to put away with the Weimar Republic Weimarer Republik. Weimar was the German city where the constitution for Germany was written after the First World War. People also wanted a stronger Germany with more troops. Germany was banned from having some types of weapons and ships by the Treaty of Versailles.
On the 30 January 1933, Franz von Papen offered to make Adolf Hitler Chancellor in a nationalist cabinet. This was done in secret. This was a Machtübergabe or transfer of power but later the NSDAP started to call this event the Machtergreifung (seizing power), because it was better for Nazi propaganda to say that they came and took over from the Weimar Republic, instead of being made the legal government of the Weimar Republic.
In the last free election in Weimar Germany was in March 1933, the NSDAP won 44 % of the vote. This was not the majority. Nevertheless, they managed to get the required two thirds majority to pass the Ermächtigungsgesetz (Enabling Act). Based on this, they dissolved parliament, gave Hitler the power to do anything he wanted, and made all parties (except the NSDAP) illegal.
Impact[change | edit source]
They made some reforms which still exist today.
- In 1934 they decided that when two people marry, their belongings are still separate.
- Costs for getting from home to work, and back again can be deducted from the taxes paid.
- They made it harder for lenders to take goods from people owing them money.
- In 1933 introduced extensive animal welfare and protection laws, the basis of animal protection laws today.
But the Nazis did so many bad things that in Germany today it is illegal to display the Swastika symbol (on the flag above) or use slogans such as Sieg Heil. In November 2010, a British member of the European Parliament, Godfrey Bloom, was forced to leave the building. He had shouted the Nazi slogan, "Ein Volk, ein Reich, ein Führer", at a German member of the parliament.
Sayings, mottos, and slogans[change | edit source]
- "Sieg Heil! Sieg Heil! Sieg Heil!"
- "Hail Victory" (common Nazi chant at rallies)
- "Ein Volk, ein Reich, ein Führer!"
- "One people, one country, one leader!"
- "Deutschland, erwache!"
- "Germany, Awake!" (A popular Nazi song by Dietrich Eckart and put on many propaganda banners.)
- "Die Juden sind unser Unglück!" (An 1880 quote by German historian Heinrich von Treitschke)
- "The Jews are our misfortune!"
- "Lang lebe unser ruhmvoller Führer!"
- "Long live our glorious leader!"
- "Heute Deutschland, morgen die Welt!"
- "Today Germany, tomorrow the world!"
- "Die Deutschen immer vor dem Ausländer und den Juden!"
- "The German always before the foreigner and the Jews!"
- "Sicher ist der Jude auch ein Mann, aber der Floh ist auch ein Tier"
- "Certainly the Jew is also a man, but the flea is also an animal"
- "Wir hassen die Juden und Ausländer"
- "We hate the Jews and foreigners"
References[change | edit source]
- Rick Steves. Rick Steves' Snapshot Munich, Bavaria & Salzburg. Berkeley, California, USA; New York, New York, USA: Avalon Travel, 2010. p. 28. "Though the Nazis eventually gained power in Berlin, they remembered their roots, dubbing Munich "Capital of the Movement". The Nazi headquarters stood near today's obelisk on Brienner Strasse..."
- Fritzsche, Peter. 1998. Germans into Nazis. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press; Eatwell, Roger, Fascism, A History, Viking/Penguin, 1996, pp. xvii–xxiv, 21, 26–31, 114–140, 352. Griffin, Roger. 2000. "Revolution from the Right: Fascism," chapter in David Parker (ed.) Revolutions and the Revolutionary Tradition in the West 1560–1991, Routledge, London.
- Blum, George, The Rise of Fascism in Europe (Greenwood Press, 1998), p. 9
- Nazi, New Oxford American Dictionary, 2nd ed., Oxford University Press Inc., 2005.
- "The History Place - Rise of Hitler: Nazi Party is Formed". historyplace.com. http://www.historyplace.com/worldwar2/riseofhitler/party.htm. Retrieved 29 December 2010.
- "Ukip MEP ejected for 'Ein Volk, ein Reich, ein Führer' jibe". guardian.co.uk. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/nov/24/ukip-mep-ejected-godfrey-bloom. Retrieved 29 December 2010.
- "Global Politician - Soros, Europeans: Die Juden sind Unser Unglück!". globalpolitician.com. http://www.globalpolitician.com/24547-soro-europe-israel. Retrieved 29 December 2010.