The English used in this article or section may not be easy for everybody to understand. (October 2011)
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, informally called the  Nobel Prize in Economics, is a prize awarded each year for outstanding contributions in the field of economics. The prize was not one of the awards set out in the will of Alfred Nobel. The winners of the prize receive their diploma and gold medal from the Swedish monarch at the same December 10 ceremony in Stockholm as the Nobel laureates in physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, and literature. The amount of money awarded to the economics laureates is also equal to that of the other prizes.
Paul Samuelson ( United States) for the scientific work through which he has developed static and dynamic economic theory and actively contributed to raising the level of analysis in economic science
Simon Kuznets (USA) for his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into the economic and social structure and process of development
John Hicks ( United Kingdom), Kenneth Arrow (USA) for their pioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory
Wassily Leontief ( Russia) for the development of the input-output method and for its application to important economic problems.
Gunnar Myrdal ( Sweden), Friedrich Hayek ( Austria) for their pioneering work in the theory of money and economic fluctuations and for their penetrating analysis of the interdependence of economic, social and institutional phenomena
Leonid Kantorovich ( Soviet Union), Tjalling Koopmans ( Netherlands) for their contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources
Milton Friedman (USA) for his achievements in the fields of consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and for his demonstration of the complexity of stabilization policy
Bertil Ohlin (Sweden), James Meade (UK) for their pathbreaking contribution to the theory of international trade and international capital movements
Herbert Simon (USA) for his pioneering research into the decision-making process within economic organizations
Theodore Schultz (USA), Arthur Lewis (Saint-Lucia) for their pioneering research into economic development research with particular consideration of the problems of developing countries
Lawrence Klein (USA) for the creation of econometric models and the application to the analysis of economic fluctuations and economic policies
James Tobin (USA) for his analysis of financial markets and their relations to expenditure decisions, employment, production and prices
George Stigler (USA) for his seminal studies of industrial structures, functioning of markets and causes and effects of public regulation
Gerard Debreu ( France) for having incorporated new analytical methods into economic theory and for his rigorous reformulation of the theory of general equilibrium
Richard Stone (UK) for having made fundamental contributions to the development of systems of national accounts and hence greatly improved the basis for empirical economic analysis
Franco Modigliani (USA) for his pioneering analyses of saving and of financial markets
James M. Buchanan (USA) for his development of the contractual and constitutional bases for the theory of economic and political decision-making
Robert Solow (USA) for his contributions to the theory of economic growth
Maurice Allais ( France) for his pioneering contributions to the theory of markets and efficient utilization of resources
Trygve Haavelmo (Norway) for his clarification of the probability theory foundations of econometrics and his analyses of simultaneous economic structures
Harry Markowitz (USA), Merton Miller (USA), William Sharpe (USA) for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics
Ronald Coase (UK) for his discovery and clarification of the significance of transaction costs and property rights for the institutional structure and functioning of the economy
Gary Becker (USA) for having extended the domain of microeconomic analysis to a wide range of human behaviour and interaction, including nonmarket behaviour
Robert Fogel (USA), Douglass North (USA) for having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change
John Harsanyi (USA), John Forbes Nash (USA), Reinhard Selten ( Germany) for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games
Robert Lucas Jr. (USA) for having developed and applied the hypothesis of rational expectations, and thereby having transformed macroeconomic analysis and deepened our understanding of economic policy
James Mirrlees (UK), William Vickrey (USA) for their fundamental contributions to the economic theory of incentives under asymmetric information
Robert C. Merton (USA), Myron Scholes (Canada) for a new method to determine the value of derivatives
Amartya Sen ( India) for his contributions to welfare economics
Robert Mundell ( Canada) for his analysis of monetary and fiscal policy under different exchange rate regimes and his analysis of optimum currency areas
James Heckman (USA),
Daniel McFadden (USA) for his development of theory and methods for analyzing selective samples
for his development of theory and methods for analyzing discrete choice
George A. Akerlof (USA), Michael Spence (USA), Joseph E. Stiglitz (USA) for their analyses of markets with asymmetric information.
Daniel Kahneman (France/ Israel/USA),
Vernon L. Smith (USA) for having integrated insights from psychological research into economic science, especially concerning human judgment and decision-making under uncertainty
for having established laboratory experiments as a tool in empirical economic analysis, especially in the study of alternative market mechanisms
Robert F. Engle (USA), Clive W. J. Granger (UK) for methods of analyzing economic time series with time-varying volatility or common trends
Finn E. Kydland (Norway), Edward C. Prescott (USA) for their contributions to dynamic macroeconomics: the time consistency of economic policy and the driving forces behind business cycles
Robert J. Aumann (Israel), Thomas Schelling (USA) for having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through
Edmund Phelps (USA) for his analysis of intertemporal tradeoffs in macroeconomic policy
Leonid Hurwicz (USA), Eric S. Maskin (USA), Roger B. Myerson (USA) for having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory
Paul Krugman (USA) for his analysis of trade patterns and location of economic activity
Elinor Ostrom "for her analysis of economic governance, especially the commons"
Oliver E. Williamson "for his analysis of economic governance, especially the boundaries of the firm"
↑ Until 2006, the prize was officially called the Bank of Sweden Prize in Economics in Memory of Alfred Nobel.
↑ 3.0 3.1 http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/economics/laureates/2009/
↑ "The Prize in Economic Sciences 2010". Nobel Foundation . http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/economics/laureates/2010/ . Retrieved 2010-10-11.
↑ "The Prize in Economic Sciences 2011". Nobel Foundation . http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/economics/laureates/2011/ . Retrieved 2011-10-10.
↑ "The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2012". Nobel Foundation . http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/economics/laureates/2012/ . Retrieved 2016-07-01.
↑ "The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2013". Nobel Foundation . http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/economic-sciences/laureates/2013/ . Retrieved 2016-07-01.
↑ "The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2014". Nobel Foundation . http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/economics/laureates/2014/ . Retrieved 2014-10-13.
↑ "The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2015". Nobel Foundation . http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/economic-sciences/laureates/2015/ . Retrieved 2015-10-12.
↑ "The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2016". Nobel Foundation . http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/economic-sciences/laureates/2016/ . Retrieved 2016-10-10.