Radioactive contamination or radiological contamination is the contamination of the environment with radioactive materials, where these materials are not present. Many radioactive substances have very long half lives; this means that if they are present in the envioroment, they can be dangerous for a very long time. Many nuclear power plants produce such substances; usually they are processed to radioactive waste. There is little danger that comes from radioactive waste,if it is stored safely.
Causes[change | change source]
- Incidents in nuclear power plants
- Nuclear medicine uses radiation for the treatment of illnesses. Sometimes, there are accidents.
- Explosions in nuclear facilities (and atomic bombs) cause nuclear fallouts: This means that nuclear particles are scattered using normal atmospheric phenomena, such as the weather
- Nuclear reprocessing can contaminate water
Accidents[change | change source]
References[change | change source]
- Richard Schiffman (12 March 2013). "Two years on, America hasn't learned lessons of Fukushima nuclear disaster". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2013/mar/12/fukushima-nuclear-accident-lessons-for-us.
- Martin Fackler (June 1, 2011). "Report Finds Japan Underestimated Tsunami Danger". New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/02/world/asia/02japan.html?_r=1&ref=world.
- Togzhan Kassenova (28 September 2009). "The lasting toll of Semipalatinsk's nuclear testing". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. http://thebulletin.org/lasting-toll-semipalatinsks-nuclear-testing.
- Goldfarb, Alex; Litvinenko, Marina (2007). Death of a Dissident: The Poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko and the Return of the KGB. Simon & Schuster UK. ISBN 978-1-4711-0301-8. https://books.google.com/books?id=KezxHbHLPnQC.
- Johnston, Wm. Robert. "K-19 submarine reactor accident, 1961". Database of radiological incidents and related events. Johnston's Archive. http://www.johnstonsarchive.net/nuclear/radevents/1961USSR1.html. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
- Johnston, Wm. Robert. "K-27 submarine reactor accident, 1968". Database of radiological incidents and related events. Johnston's Archive. http://www.johnstonsarchive.net/nuclear/radevents/1968USSR6.html. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
- Johnston, Wm. Robert. "K-431 submarine reactor accident, 1985". Database of radiological incidents and related events. Johnston's Archive. http://www.johnstonsarchive.net/nuclear/radevents/1985USSR1.html. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
- "Lost Iridium-192 Source". http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/gen-comm/info-notices/1985/in85057.html.
- The Radiological Accident in Goiania p. 2.
- Strengthening the Safety of Radiation Sources p. 15.
- Gusev, Igor; Guskova, Angelina; Mettler, Fred A. (12 December 2010). Medical Management of Radiation Accidents, Second Edition. CRC Press. pp. 299–303. ISBN 978-1-4200-3719-7. https://books.google.com/books?id=p6b4qDorN4wC&pg=PA299.
- Bagla, Pallava (7 May 2010). "Radiation Accident a 'Wake-Up Call' For India's Scientific Community". Science 328 (5979): 679. doi:10.1126/science.328.5979.679-a.
- International Atomic Energy Agency. "Investigation of an accidental Exposure of radiotherapy patients in Panama". http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1114_scr.pdf.
- Johnston, Robert (September 23, 2007). "Deadliest radiation accidents and other events causing radiation casualties". Database of Radiological Incidents and Related Events. http://www.johnstonsarchive.net/nuclear/radevents/radevents1.html.
- Patterson AJ (2007). "Ushering in the era of nuclear terrorism". Critical Care Medicine 35 (3): 953–4. doi:10.1097/01.CCM.0000257229.97208.76. PMID 17421087.
- Acton JM, Rogers MB, Zimmerman PD; Brooke Rogers; Zimmerman (September 2007). "Beyond the Dirty Bomb: Re-thinking Radiological Terror". Survival 49 (3): 151–168. doi:10.1080/00396330701564760.
- Sixsmith, Martin (2007). The Litvinenko File: The Life and Death of a Russian Spy. True Crime. p. 14. ISBN 0-312-37668-5.
- Bremer Mærli, Morten. "Radiological Terrorism: "Soft Killers"". Bellona Foundation. http://www.bellona.org/articles/polonium.