United States Minor Outlying Islands

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United States Minor Outlying Islands
Motto: 
Anthem: Star Spangled Banner
Administrative center Washington, D.C.
Largest village Wake Island
Official languages English
Demonym
  • American
  • Islander
Government
 -  President Barack Obama (D)
 -  Governor none
 -  Lieutenant Governor none
Area
 -  Total 34.2 km2 (190th)
13.2 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 88.6
Population
 -  2009 estimate 300 (232nd)
 -  2000 census 316
 -  Density n/a/km2 (n/a)
n/a/sq mi
GDP (PPP) estimate
 -  Total n/a (n/a)
 -  Per capita $46,381a (6th)
Currency United States dollar (USD)
Internet TLD .us b
a. 2000 estimate.
b. .um was retired in 2008.


The United States Minor Outlying Islands are eight island territories of the United States. They are Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Atoll, Palmyra Atoll and Wake Island in the Pacific Ocean; and Navassa Island in the Caribbean Sea. The islands are grouped together for statistical reasons. They are not administered together.

As of 2008, none of the islands have any people living there permanently. The only human population consists of temporarily stationed scientific and military personnel. The 2000 census counted 315 people on Johnston Atoll and 1 person on Wake Island.[1] There has been no modern indigenous population, except at the 1940 census. In 1936, a colonization scheme began to settle Americans on Baker, Howland and Jarvis, but all three islands were evacuated in 1942 because of World War II.[2][3]

The islands are all together represented by the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code UM. The ISO introduced the term "United States Minor Outlying Islands" in 1986. From 1974 until 1986, five of the islands (Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Palmyra Atoll and Kingman Reef) were grouped under the term "United States Miscellaneous Pacific Islands", with ISO 3166 code PU. The code of Midway Atoll was MI, the code of Johnston Atoll was JT, and the code of Wake Island was WK. The Pacific islands are surrounded by large Exclusive Economic Zones.

Airports[change | edit source]

The following is a list of island airports with ICAO (IATA) codes:

Ports[change | edit source]

Three of the islands have ports listed in the World Port Index,[4] with World Port Number:

  • 56325 JOHNSTON ATOLL: Johnston Atoll
  • 56328 MIDWAY ISLAND: Midway Atoll
  • 56330 WAKE ISLAND: Wake Island
  • not listed WEST LAGOON: Palmyra Atoll

Baker Island, Howland Island and Jarvis Island have a small boat landing place on each. Kingman Reef and Navassa Island have offshore anchorage only.

Islands[change | edit source]

Atoll/Island Island Area
km²
Lagoon
km²
Coordinates NWR
Established
Date of
Acquisition

Northern Pacific Ocean, scattered isolated islands

Wake IslandA 7.4 6 19°18′N 166°38′E / 19.3°N 166.633°E / 19.3; 166.633 (Wake Island) 2009 January 6[5][6] 1899 January 17
Johnston AtollB 2.52 130 16°45′N 169°31′W / 16.75°N 169.517°W / 16.75; -169.517 (Johnston Atoll) 1926 July 29[7] 1859 September 6

Northern Pacific Ocean, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

Midway Atoll 5.18 40 28°13′N 177°22′W / 28.217°N 177.367°W / 28.217; -177.367 (Midway Atoll) 1996 November 1[8] 1867 August 28

Central Pacific Ocean, Northern Line Islands

Kingman Reef 0.01 76 6°24′N 162°24′W / 6.4°N 162.4°W / 6.4; -162.4 (Kingman Reef) 2001 January 18[9] 1860 February 8
Palmyra AtollB 6.56 15 5°53′N 162°05′W / 5.883°N 162.083°W / 5.883; -162.083 (Palmyra Atoll) 2001 January 18[10] 1912 February 21

Central Pacific Ocean, Central Line Islands

Jarvis Island 4.45 - 0°22′S 160°01′W / 0.367°S 160.017°W / -0.367; -160.017 (Jarvis Island) 1974 June 27[3] 1856 October 28

Central Pacific Ocean, Northern Phoenix Islands

Baker Island 1.24 - 0°12′N 176°29′W / 0.2°N 176.483°W / 0.2; -176.483 (Baker Island) 1974 June 27[2] 1856 October 28
Howland Island 1.62 - 0°48′N 176°37′W / 0.8°N 176.617°W / 0.8; -176.617 (Howland Island) 1974 June 27[2] 1856 October 28

Caribbean Sea

Navassa IslandC 5.2 - 18°24′N 75°01′W / 18.4°N 75.017°W / 18.4; -75.017 (Navassa Island) 1999 December 3[11] 1858 October 31
Bajo Nuevo BankD 0.02 155 15°53′N 78°38′W / 15.883°N 78.633°W / 15.883; -78.633 (Bajo Nuevo Bank) N/A 1869 November 22
Serranilla BankD 0.02 1200 15°50′N 79°50′W / 15.833°N 79.833°W / 15.833; -79.833 (Serranilla Bank) N/A 1879 September 8
1880 September 13
U.S. Minor Outlying Islands 34.2 267      
A Claimed by the Marshall Islands[source?]
B Previously claimed by Hawaii when independent. Palmyra was officially part of Hawaii until 1959.
C Claimed by Haiti
D These islands are controlled by Colombia, and are not included in the ISO list of territories. Their areas are not included in the totals.

References[change | edit source]

  1. US Census 2000 Population Summary — see Table I
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "Office of Insular Affairs: Baker and Howland Islands - History". United States Department of the Interior. http://www.doi.gov/oia/Islandpages/bhpage.htm. Retrieved 2011-06-10.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Office of Insular Affairs: Jarvis Island - History". United States Department of the Interior. http://www.doi.gov/oia/Islandpages/jarvispage.htm. Retrieved 2011-06-10.
  4. "NGA.mil". National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 2 December 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20081202150743/http://www.nga.mil/portal/site/maritime/?epi_menuItemID=dab63a42518d786b6058eef03227a759&epi_menuID=35ad5b8aabcefa1a0fc133443927a759&epi_baseMenuID=e106a3b5e50edce1fec24fd73927a759.
  5. "Presidential Proclamation 8336" (PDF). http://www.fws.gov/pacificremoteislandsmarinemonument/PP%20PRIMNM.pdf. Retrieved 2011-06-10.
  6. "Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents: Monday, January 12, 2009 Volume 45—Number 1, Page 14". United States Government Printing Office. http://fdsys.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/WCPD-2009-01-12/pdf/WCPD-2009-01-12.pdf. Retrieved 2011-06-10.
  7. "Office of Insular Affairs: Johnston Island - History". United States Department of the Interior. http://www.doi.gov/oia/Islandpages/johnstonpage.htm. Retrieved 2011-06-10.
  8. "Executive Order 13022: Administration of the Midway Islands". United States Fish and Wildlife Service. http://www.fws.gov/laws/lawsdigest/EO.htm#eo13022. Retrieved 2011-06-10.
  9. "Department of the Interior: Secretary's Order #3223". United States Department of the Interior. http://elips.doi.gov/app_so/act_getfiles.cfm?order_number=3223. Retrieved 2011-06-10.
  10. "Department of the Interior: Secretary's Order #3224". United States Department of the Interior. http://elips.doi.gov/app_so/act_getfiles.cfm?order_number=3224. Retrieved 2011-06-10.
  11. "Department of the Interior: Secretary's Order #3210". United States Department of the Interior. http://elips.doi.gov/elips/sec_orders/html_orders/3210.htm. Retrieved 2011-06-10.

Other websites[change | edit source]