Mikhail Gorbachev

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This person was awarded a Nobel Prize
Mikhail Gorbachev
Михаил Горбачёв
President of the Soviet Union
In office
15 March 1990 – 25 December 1991
Vice President Gennady Yanayev
Preceded by Office established
Succeeded by Office abolished
Chairman of the Supreme Soviet
In office
25 May 1989 – 15 March 1990
Deputy Anatoly Lukyanov
Preceded by Office established
Succeeded by Anatoly Lukyanov (Executive roles transferred to President)
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
In office
1 October 1988 – 25 May 1989
Preceded by Andrei Gromyko
Succeeded by Office abolished
General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
In office
11 March 1985 – 24 August 1991
Deputy Yegor Ligachev
Vladimir Ivashko (1990-1991)
Preceded by Konstantin Chernenko
Succeeded by Office abolished
Personal details
Born 2 March 1931 (1931-03-02) (age 83)
Privolnoye, Stavropol Krai, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union
Nationality Russian
Political party Independent Democratic Party (2008–present)
Union of Social Democrats (2007–present)
Other political
affiliations
Social Democratic Party (2001–2004)
Communist Party (1950–1991)
Spouse(s) Raisa Gorbachova (m. 1953–1999)
Alma mater Moscow State University
Profession Lawyer
Signature
Website The Gorbachev Foundation

Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev [1] (sometimes spelled Gorbachov) (born 2 March 1931) is a Soviet politician. He was the last leader of the Soviet Union.

He was the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991, and the first (and last) president of the Soviet Union from 1990 until it was dissolved in 1991. Gorbachev is known for forming a friendship with President of the United States Ronald Reagan. Both of them would help end the Cold War.

Early life[change | change source]

Gorbachev was born in Privolnoye, Stavropol Krai, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union.

Secretary General of the Soviet Union[change | change source]

Reagan and Gorbachev at the Geneva Summit in 1985

His attempts at reform and partnership with Ronald Reagan led to the end of the Cold War. His main intent was to improve the economy of the USSR. To do this, he set in motion two major reforms:

  • Perestroika: restructuring of the economy
  • Glasnost: gave more freedom to the people, and allowed them to express their opinions more freely.

Indirectly, this may have helped cause the end of the power of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), and the break-up of the Soviet Union into smaller countries. However, it should be noted that the need to modernise the economy, and to conduct government less ruthlessly than Stalin, was agreed by the previous two leaders. They, Andropov and Chernenko, were elderly and died before real changes could be put in place.

Personal life[change | change source]

Gorbachev studied law at Lomonosov Moscow State University where he also met his future wife Raisa Gorbachova. Raisa studied sociology. After retiring from politics in 1991, Gorbachev started The Gorbachev Foundation, which is currently headed by his daugther Irina. In 2004, he traveled to the United States to attend Ronald Reagan's funeral.

Awards[change | change source]

He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1990.[2] He won a Grammy Award in 2004 with Bill Clinton and Sophia Loren for Best Spoken Word Album for Children for their recording of Sergei Prokofiev's Peter and the Wolf.[3]

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. Russian: Михаи́л Серге́евич Горбачёв
  2. NobelPrize.org, "Mikhail Gorbachev"; retrieved 2012-9-19.
  3. "Gorbachev and Clinton win Grammy". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/3472495.stm. Retrieved 2013-03-17.

Other websites[change | change source]

Media related to Mikhail Gorbachev at Wikimedia Commons

Preceded by
Konstantin Chernenko
General Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party
1985–1991
Succeeded by
Vladimir Ivashko