Jimmy Carter

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Jimmy Carter
39th President of the United States
In office
January 20, 1977 – January 20, 1981
Vice President Walter Mondale
Preceded by Gerald Ford
Succeeded by Ronald Reagan
76th Governor of Georgia
In office
January 12, 1971 – January 14, 1975
Lieutenant Lester Maddox
Preceded by Lester Maddox
Succeeded by George Busbee
Member of the Georgia Senate
from the 14th district
In office
January 14, 1963 – January 10, 1967
Preceded by Constituency established
Succeeded by Hugh Carter
Personal details
Born October 1, 1924 (1924-10-01) (age 90)
Plains, Georgia, US
Political party Democratic
Spouse(s) Rosalynn Smith Carter (m. 1946-present)
Relations James Earl Carter Sr. (father, deceased)
Lillian Gordy Carter (mother, deceased)
Gloria Carter Spann (sister, deceased)
Ruth Carter Stapleton (sister, deceased)
Billy Carter (brother, deceased)
Hugh Carter (cousin, deceased)
Children Jack, Chip, Jeff, Amy
Residence Georgia (U.S. state), US
Profession Farmer, naval officer
This person was awarded a Nobel Prize

James Earl "Jimmy" Carter, Jr. (born October 1, 1924) was the 39th President of the United States. He served from 1977 to 1981. He is a member of the Democratic Party.

Carter was born in Plains, Georgia. He was a state senator and later the governor of Georgia. His family owned a peanut plantation.[1] The Secret Service called him Peanut One.[1]

During Carter's term as President, he created two new cabinet-level departments. They are the Department of Energy and the Department of Education.

He won a primary against Ted Kennedy for the Democratic Party nomination in the He lost the 1980 election to Ronald Reagan, the Republican candidate. After Carter's term in office ended on January 20, 1981, the 52 U.S. hostages held at the U.S. embassy in Iran were released. The 444-day Iran hostage crisis was ended.[2]

After leaving office, Carter and his wife Rosalynn founded the Carter Center in 1982.[3] It is a not-for-profit organization that works to advance human rights. He has traveled widely to conduct peace negotiations, and observe elections. He works for disease prevention and disease eradication in developing countries.

Early life[change | change source]

Carter at the age of 13

James Earl Carter was born in the Wise Sanitarium in Plains, Georgia on October 1, 1924. His parents are Lillian Gordy Carter and James Earl Carter, Sr. He is the eldest of four children. Carter's father was a business owner in the community. His mother was a registered nurse. Carter was the first President of the United States to be born in a hospital.[4]

Carter has Scots-Irish and English ancestry. One of his paternal ancestors arrived in the American Colonies in 1635.[5][6] His family has lived in the state of Georgia for several generations. Ancestors of Carter fought in the American Revolution. He is a member of the Sons of the American Revolution.[7] Carter's great-grandfather, Private L.B. Walker Carter (1832–1874), served in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War.[8]

Carter had three younger siblings: sisters Gloria (1926–1990) and Ruth (1929–1983), and brother "Billy" (1937-1988). During Carter's presidency, Billy was often in the news, usually for something absurd.[9]

His half-second cousin is Berry Gordy through his mother Lillian Gordy.[10] He is a cousin of June Carter Cash.[10]

Carter was a gifted student from an early age. He always love to read. As a youngster, he was a star in basketball. In high school, he was in the Future Farmers of America. Carter was the Plains FFA Chapter Secretary.[11]

Naval career[change | change source]

After high school, Carter enrolled at Georgia Southwestern College, in Americus.[12] Later, he applied to the United States Naval Academy. He took extra mathematics courses at Georgia Tech. He was admitted to the Academy in 1943.[13] Carter graduated 59th out of 820 midshipmen at the Naval Academy. He earned a Bachelor of Science degree.[14]

Marriage and family[change | change source]

He married Rosalynn Smith in 1946.[15] They have four children: Jack, Chip, Jeff, and Amy.[16]

Career[change | change source]

Carter served on ships and on submarines in the Atlantic and Pacific fleets. He was a junior officer when he completed qualification for command of a submarine. He applied for the US Navy's nuclear submarine program run by Captain Hyman G. Rickover. Rickover's demands on his men and machines were well known. Carter later said that, next to his parents, Rickover had the greatest influence on him.[17]

He had planned to make it his service to the Navy as his career. His ultimate goal was to become Chief of Naval Operations. Carter felt the best route for promotion was with submarine duty. He felt that nuclear power would be used more and more in submarines. Carter was based in Schenectady, New York. There he worked on developing training materials for the nuclear propulsion system for the prototype of a new submarine.[18]

His father James Earl Carter, Sr., died in July 1953. Carter was needed to run the family business.[16] He resigned his commission,[16] and was discharged from the Navy on October 9, 1953.[19]

As Governor of Georgia[change | change source]

Carter was sworn in as the 76th Governor of Georgia on January 12, 1971. He held this job for one term, until January 14, 1975. At the time, governors of Georgia were not allowed to succeed themselves. His predecessor as governor, Lester Maddox, became the Lieutenant Governor. Carter and Maddox found little common ground during their four years of service. They often publicly disagreed with each other.[20][21] In Georgia, the Governor and Lieutenant Governor were not elected as a team.

1976 election[change | change source]

1976 election results map

When Carter's name was on the ballot in the Democratic Party primaries in 1976, he was considered to have little chance against nationally well known politicians.[22] His name recognition was about two percent.[22]

As late as January 26, 1976, Carter was the first choice of only four percent of Democratic voters, according to a Gallup poll.[23] He chose United States Senator from Minnesota Walter Mondale as his running mate.[24] He beat Republican Gerald Ford. He received 297 electoral votes.[25] Carter became the first person from the Deep South since Zachary Taylor was elected in 1848 to win the presidency.

Presidency[change | change source]

Carter tried to help with the problem between Israel and Palestine. He also tried to reach an agreement with the USSR about nuclear weapons. This did not work because he was not prepared to compromise.

He did help Egypt and Israel sign the peace treaty. They have not gone to war since. He was followed as President by Ronald Reagan. Carter often visits foreign countries as an independent observer of elections.[26][27]

While Carter was President, some people took over the U.S. Embassy in Iran. They kept Americans in the embassy as hostages. The hostages were not released until the last day Carter was president.[2] They were held for 444 days.[2]

Carter also had to deal with many problems in the United States. During his presidency, the nation had an energy and economic crisis. The fact that he could not fix these problems led the way for Ronald Reagan to take the role of President.[source?]

In foreign affairs, Carter pursued the Panama Canal Treaties and returned the Panama Canal Zone to Panama.[28]

There was a United States boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics that took place in Moscow, USSR. This was in protest of the Soviet Union's invasion of Afghanistan during the time.[29]

After Being President[change | change source]

Carter in 1991 in the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library dedication with former presidents Gerald Ford, Richard Nixon, Ronald Reagan and President George H. W. Bush (center)
Carter in the Oval Office at the White House on January 7, 2009 with former presidents George H. W. Bush and Bill Clinton, President-elect Barack Obama, and President George W. Bush
Carter in the Lyndon B. Johnson Presidential library in 2011

Carter was beaten by Ronald Reagan in the 1980 election. When his presidency was over, Carter worked with groups such as Habitat for Humanity to build houses in poor areas. He also has worked for peace in the Middle East. He won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2002.[30] He has written many books.

On September 8, 2012, Carter surpassed Herbert Hoover as the longest retirement of any president after leaving office.[31]

His grandson, Jason Carter became a member of the Georgia State Senate in 2010[32] and is running for Governor of Georgia in 2014.

Other websites[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Smith, Andrew F. (2002). Peanuts: the illustrious history of the goober pea. The food series. University of Illinois Press. pp. 108-109. ISBN 9780252025532 . http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=JbOsI9RG8fYC&pg=PA109.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "Iran Hostage Crisis ends – History.com This Day in History – 1/20/1981". History.com. http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/iran-hostage-crisis-ends. Retrieved March 23, 2013.
  3. "Timeline and History of The Carter Center". The Carter Center. Retrieved March 23, 2013.
  4. Jimmy Carter is born at History.com
  5. "The Nation: Magnus Carter: Jimmy's Roots". Time. August 22, 1977. Retrieved March 23, 2013.
  6. "Carter, who referred to his own Scotch-Irish background ..."
  7. "The California Compatriot" (PDF). California Society SAR. Spring 2007. p. 23. http://www.californiasar.org/images/SpringCompatriot07_R.pdf. Retrieved March 23, 2013.
  8. Jimmy Carter, American Moralist, by Kenneth Earl Morris, 1996, page 23
  9. Robert D. Hershey Jr (September 26, 1988). "Billy Carter Dies of Cancer at 51; Troubled Brother of a President". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1988/09/26/obituaries/billy-carter-dies-of-cancer-at-51-troubled-brother-of-a-president.html. Retrieved 2013-03-23.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Cash, John R. with Patrick Carr. (1997) Johnny Cash, the Autobiography. Harper Collins
  11. "National FFA Organization: Prominent Former Members" (PDF). National FFA Organization. http://www.ffa.org/documents/about_prominentmembers.pdf.
  12. Jimmy Carter, American Moralist, by Kenneth Earl Morris, 1996, pp. 91-95
  13. Jimmy Carter, American Moralist, by Kenneth Earl Morris, 1996, pp. 92-95
  14. DeGregorio, William A. (2005). The Complete Book of US Presidents.. 1. Fort Lee: Barricade Books.
  15. Jimmy Carter, American Moralist, by Kenneth Earl Morris, 1996, page 77
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 "Jimmy Carter (b. 1924)". New Georgia Encyclopedia. August 22, 2013. http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/articles/government-politics/jimmy-carter-b-1924. Retrieved October 7, 2013.
  17. "Admiral Hyman Rickover - My Father Remembered". Rickover.com. http://www.rickover.com/. Retrieved October 14,2013.
  18. Paul Post, Soldiers of Saratoga County: From Concord to Kabul (2010) p 105
  19. "Timeline: Jimmy Carter". PBS. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/timeline/carter/. Retrieved October 9, 2013.
  20. Peter Applebome (January 14, 1990). "In Georgia Reprise, Maddox on Stump". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1990/01/14/us/in-georgia-reprise-maddox-on-stump.html?pagewanted=all. Retrieved March 23, 2013.
  21. Race Matters – Lester Maddox, Segregationist and Georgia Governor, Dies at 87.
  22. 22.0 22.1 Brinkley, Alan; Dyer, Davis (2004). The American Presidency. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 245. ISBN 0618382739 .
  23. Shoup (1980), The Carter Presidency and Beyond'
  24. Jimmy Carter, American Moralist, by Kenneth Earl Morris, 1996, page 225
  25. Jimmy Carter, American Moralist, by Kenneth Earl Morris, 1996, page 224
  26. The Carter Center: Waging Peace Through Elections. Retrieved September 19, 2010.
  27. Jose De Cordoba, and David Luhnow, "Venezuelans Rush to Vote on Chávez: Polarized Nation Decides Whether to Recall President After Years of Political Rifts", The Wall Street Journal (Eastern edition), New York City, August 16, 2004, p. A11.
  28. "President Jimmy Carter Signed the Panama Canal Treaty". Library of Congress. http://www.americaslibrary.gov/jb/modern/jb_modern_pancanal_1.html. Retrieved October 7, 2013.
  29. Smothers, Ronald (July 19, 1996). "Olympics: Bitterness Lingering Over Carter's Boycott". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1996/07/19/sports/olympics-bitterness-lingering-over-carter-s-boycott.html.
  30. Norwegian Nobel Committee, 2002 Nobel Peace Prize announcement,[1], October 11, 2002. Retrieved August 4, 2008.
  31. Dillon, John (September 9, 2012). "The Record-Setting Ex-Presidency of Jimmy Carter". The Atlantic. http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2012/09/the-record-setting-ex-presidency-of-jimmy-carter/262143/. Retrieved October 6, 2013.
  32. Hulse, Carl (May 11, 2010). "Veteran House Democrat Loses Seat in Primary". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/12/us/politics/12elect.html?_r=0. Retrieved October 6, 2013.