John Quincy Adams

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John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
6th President of the United States
In office
March 4, 1825 – March 3, 1829
Vice President John Caldwell Calhoun
Preceded by James Monroe
Succeeded by Andrew Jackson
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Massachusetts's 8th district
In office
March 4, 1843 – February 23, 1848
Preceded by William Calhoun
Succeeded by Horace Mann
In office
March 4, 1833 – March 4, 1843
Preceded by James Hodges
Succeeded by George Robinson
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Massachusetts's 11th district
In office
March 4, 1831 – March 4, 1833
Preceded by Joseph Richardson
Succeeded by John Reed
8th United States Secretary of State
In office
September 22, 1817 – March 4, 1825
President James Monroe
Preceded by James Monroe
Succeeded by Henry Clay
United States Minister to Court of St. James's
In office
April 28, 1814 – September 22, 1817
Nominated by James Madison
Preceded by Jonathan Russell (Acting)
Succeeded by Richard Rush
United States Minister to Russia
In office
November 5, 1809 – April 28, 1814
Nominated by James Madison
Preceded by William Short
Succeeded by James Bayard
United States Senator
from Massachusetts
In office
March 4, 1803 – June 8, 1808
Preceded by Jonathan Mason
Succeeded by James Lloyd
United States Minister to Prussia
In office
December 5, 1797 – May 5, 1801
Nominated by John Adams
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by Henry Wheaton
United States Minister to the Netherlands
In office
November 6, 1794 – June 20, 1797
Nominated by George Washington
Preceded by William Short
Succeeded by William Vans Murray
Personal details
Born July 11, 1767(1767-07-11)
Braintree, Massachusetts, U.S.
Died February 23, 1848(1848-02-23) (aged 80)
Washington, D.C., U.S.
Nationality American
Political party Federalist, Republican, National Republican and Whig
Spouse(s) Louisa Catherine (Johnson) Adams

John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) was the sixth President of the United States. He was the first President who was the son of a President.[1] Several cities are named after Adam's middle name such as Quincy, Illinois.

Early life[change | change source]

He was born in Braintree, Massachusetts, in 1767. He watched the Battle of Bunker Hill, a fight of the American Revolutionary War, from his family's farm. When his father, John Adams, was in Europe, John Quincy went with him as his secretary. He became good at speaking other languages.

He went to Harvard College and became a lawyer. At age 26 he was appointed Minister to the Netherlands and then he went to Berlin. In 1802 he was elected to the United States Senate. Six years later President James Madison appointed him Minister to Russia.

Adams was Secretary of State when James Monroe was President. He organized joint control of Oregon with England and helped get Florida from Spain. Adams helped make the Monroe Doctrine.

Presidency[change | change source]

Adams was elected president by the United States House of Representatives after the 1824 election that had no one get a majority of electoral votes. People who wanted future president Andrew Jackson to win said there was a deal between Adams and Speaker of the House Henry Clay. Adams made Clay his Secretary of State.

Adams passed law for U.S. improvements as part of what he called the "American System." This means he created roads, canals, and used high tariffs, or taxes on imports and exports. Adams fought Congress many times as many supporters of Andrew Jackson did not like his support of a national bank and tariffs (taxes on trade).

Adams lost the 1828 election to Jackson. The election was noted for the personal attacks made by the candidates against each other.

Later life[change | change source]

Adams returned to Massachusetts for a short time after he was lost. He returned to Washington D.C. in 1831 after being elected to the United States House of Representatives. He was a leading opponent of slavery. He remained in Congress until his death on February 23, 1848.

References[change | change source]