John Marshall

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
John Marshall
4th Chief Justice of the United States
In office
February 4, 1801 – July 6, 1835
Nominated by John Adams
Preceded by Oliver Ellsworth
Succeeded by Roger B. Taney
4th United States Secretary of State
In office
June 13, 1800 – February 4, 1801
President John Adams
Preceded by Timothy Pickering
Succeeded by James Madison
U.S. Representative from Virginia
In office
March 4, 1799 – June 7, 1800
Personal details
Born September 24, 1755(1755-09-24)
Germantown, Virginia
Died July 6, 1835(1835-07-06) (aged 79)
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
Political party Federalist
Spouse(s) Mary Willis Ambler
Profession Lawyer, Judge
Religion Episcopalian
Military service
Service/branch Culpeper, Virginia Militia
Rank Captain
Battles/wars American Revolutionary War

John Marshall (September 24, 1755 – July 6, 1835) was an American statesman and jurist who shaped American constitutional law and made the Supreme Court more powerful. Marshall was Chief Justice of the United States, working from February 4, 1801, until his death in 1835. He worked in the United States House of Representatives from March 4, 1799, to June 7, 1800, and, under President John Adams, was Secretary of State from June 6, 1800, to March 4, 1801. Marshall was from the Commonwealth of Virginia and a leader of the Federalist Party.

The longest working Chief Justice in Supreme Court history, Marshall ruled the Court for thirty years and was an important part of making the American legal system. His most important addition was judicial review; the power to stop laws that violate the Constitution. Marshall has been called the one that made the judicial branch special and powerful. Marshall also balanced the power between the federal and state government. He made sure the federal law was more powerful than state law and agreed with an expansive reading of the enumerated powers.