Persian language

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Persian
Farsi
fa
Farsi.svg
Farsi in Persian script (Nastaʿlīq style)
Pronunciation[fɒːɾˈsiː]
Native toIran[1]

Afghanistan[1](as Dari)
Tajikistan[1](as Tajik)
Uzbekistan
Iraq
Pakistan[1]
Bahrain

Azerbaijan[2]
Native speakers
60 million (2009)[2]
(110 million total speakers)[2]
Early forms
Dialects
Arabic (Persian alphabet)
Cyrillic (Tajik alphabet)
Hebrew script
Persian Braille
Official status
Official language in
 Iran
 Afghanistan
 Tajikistan
Regulated byAcademy of Persian Language and Literature (Iran)
Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan
Language codes
ISO 639-1fa
ISO 639-2per (B)
fas (T)
ISO 639-3fasinclusive code
Individual codes:
pes – Western Persian
prs – Eastern Persian
tgk – Tajiki
aiq – Aimaq
bhh – Bukharic
haz – Hazaragi
jpr – Dzhidi
phv – Pahlavani
deh – Dehwari
jdt – Juhuri
ttt – Caucasian Tat
Linguasphere58-AAC (Wider Persian) > 58-AAC-c (Central Persian)
Persian Language Location Map.svg
Approximate extent of the Persian language area. Map includes all three dialects of Persian.
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For a guide to IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.
Spoken Persian

Persian is the official language of Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan. It is also spoken by many people in Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan and other neighbouring countries and by immigrants from Central Asia in Russia. Persian was also taught as a second language in schools in Pakistan until 2006. In the past, many of those places were parts of the Persian Empire.

Persian has many dialects and is officially called Farsi in Iran, Dari and Farsi in Afghanistan and Tajiki in Tajikistan. The literary language of each country is a little different, but people from each country can understand one another when they have a conversation. It has words from French in Iran and many from Russian Tajikstan.

Alphabet[change | change source]

The Persian alphabet has the following letters:

ا ب پ ت ث ج چ ح خ د ذ ر ز ژ س ش ص ض ط ظ ع غ ف ق ک گ ل م ن و ه ی

The Persian alphabet used in Iran and Afghanistan is similar to the Arabic alphabet, but since Persian in a different family from Arabic, their vocabulary and grammar are very different. Since the 1930s, in the countries that were in the Soviet Union, like Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, Persian has been written in the Cyrillic alphabet, like Russian. All Persian-speakers used to use the Arabic alphabet.

History[change | change source]

Persian is a very old language, and linguists use names for three different versions of Persian that were used in three different times. Old Persian was spoken in the first Persian Empire, under the Achaemenid kings, including Cyrus and Darius the Great. The empire existed from the 6th century BC to the conquest of Alexander the Great. The second Persian empire was ruled by the Sassanian kings from the 2nd century AD until the Muslim conquest of Iran by the Arabs in the 7th century and spoke Middle Persian, or Pahlavi.

New or Modern Persian is spoken today and was first written down in the 9th century, during the Samanid Empire, which was the first Muslim Persian kingdom and was based in Central Asia. The earliest writers of New Persian included poets like Rudaki, and Ferdowsi, who wrote an epic, a very long poem, called the Shahname, translated as the Book of Kings in English. It has myths and historical stories from before the Arabs conquered Persia.

Many other famous writers in Persian language were poets too, a few being Saadi, Hafez, Rumi. The Persian language has been very important one for literature. After Arabic, it was the second most common written language in Muslim countries, especially in the East.

Sample[change | change source]

من پارسی هستم و کتاب دارم.
I am Persian, and I have a book.

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Samadi, Habibeh; Nick Perkins (2012). Martin Ball, David Crystal, Paul Fletcher (ed.). Assessing Grammar: The Languages of Lars. Multilingual Matters. p. 169. ISBN 978-1-84769-637-3.CS1 maint: multiple names: editors list (link)
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Windfuhr, Gernot. The Iranian Languages. Routledge. 2009. p. 418.